<![CDATA[ Gallery ]]> http://en.theinternational.club/gallery <![CDATA[ President Sisi opens Egypt's sixth National Youth Conference ]]> Sat, 28 Jul 2018 18:47:11 EET http://en.theinternational.club/news/406 Egypt’s President Abdel-Fattah El-Sisi inaugurated on Saturday the 6th National Youth Conference, which is taking place at Cairo University on 28-29 July.

During the opening session, the president promoted Defence Mnister Mohamed Zaki from the rank of lieutenant-general to general, the second-highest rank in Egypt's Armed Forces.

"We always speak about the very special relationship between the Armed Forces and the people — and it is crucial to focus on the meaning of this strong relationship," El-Sisi said before endowing Zaki with his new title in Cairo University's prestigious main hall.

Egypt's Prime Minister Mostafa Madbouly said during the first session, titled 'The Strategy of Building the Egyptian Person,' that character-building will be the cabinet's priority in the coming period, and that this will be achieved through education and healthcare reform, strengthening cultural identity, and paying attention to sports.

"After four years of working on security and stability, our goal is to launch the 'Egypt Takes Off' programme, [which involves] building the Egyptian character to improve the standard of living for citizens through housing projects and eliminating slums, followed by economic development to create jobs and activate the system of entrepreneurship," explained Madbouly.

The Prime Minister added that the cabinet's four-year 'Egypt Takes Off' programme will include overhauling the education system.

During the session, Minister of Higher Education Khaled Abdel-Ghaffer said that there are 120,000 academics currently working in the scientific research field in the country.

Abdel-Ghaffer also said that the government is working on opening new public universities, adding that three are currently being built in the Marsa Matrouh, New Valley and Red Sea governorates. He also revealed that there is a plan to build three other universities for technical education.

Minister of Youth and Sports Ashraf Sobhy said during the session that his ministry is working to attract more investments in the field of sports and to upgrade all sports facilities across the country.

Sobhy also announced that he has prepared a programme for enhancing physical education and training for all age groups. 

More than 3,000 university students, officials, ministers and MPs attended the opening session. The conference is also attended by top-scoring 2017/18 thanaweya amma graduates.

The first day of the conference is featuring a discussion by El-Sisi and Education Minister Tarek Shawky on the development of the country's education system.

The second day will feature a special session on developing the health insurance system, and will be attended by Minister of Health Hala Zayed and a number of medical school deans and young doctors.

A session called the 'National Project for the Information Structure of the Egyptian State' is also scheduled for the second day.

There will also be a question and answer session where the Egyptian president will answer queries from students as part of the 'Ask the President' online initiative.

This is the first youth conference to be held since El-Sisi started his second term in office in June, after winning 97 percent of the vote in the March 2018 elections. The first National Youth conference was held in October 2016 in Sharm El-Sheikh.

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<![CDATA[ Steps of re-shaping Egyptian-American relations ]]> Thu, 26 Jul 2018 13:03:54 EET http://en.theinternational.club/news/405 By: Hamada Al Kohly

Those who are observing the Egyptian-American relations have gotten four news in the last few days. The first of which was the message of congratulations from US President Donald Trump to President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi on Egypt's national day. Trump stressed the depth of the common relations and his keenness to push it forward.

The second news: The "Eagle Response 2018" joint naval military drills were launched by units of the Special Naval Forces of Egypt, the United States of America, Saudi Arabia and the UAE, which will last for several days in the territorial waters in the Red Sea, and the participation of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Pakistan and South Korea as observers.

The third news: Egyptian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Sameh Shoukry, received a phone call from his U.S. counterpart, Mike Pompeo, in which they discuss various aspects of Egyptian-U.S. relations in both political and economic areas, as well as a number of issues of mutual interest. Pompeo stressed his country’s keenness to strengthen its strategic relationship with Egypt and its commitment to support Egypt politically and economically through different cooperation mechanisms, including the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) in Egypt. The U.S. Secretary of State has also pointed out that America will increase its support for Egypt during the coming period, as well as removing any obstacles in this regard. Furthermore, Pompeo invited Shoukry to visit Washington in the first week of August to continue consultations and coordination on the development of bilateral relations.

The fourth news: The United States has committed to grant Egypt $45 million for development projects. According to the statement of the US Embassy in Cairo, the bilateral assistance agreement between the two countries witnessed five amendments to its terms. The grant will be spent on projects in the sectors of agriculture, higher education, science and technology, healthcare, and governance, and in line with the Egyptian government's economic reform program and the Sustainable Development Plan (Vision 2030).

These news indicate that there are attempts to reshape the Egyptian-American relations. In the past months, the two countries' relations have deteriorated due to differences in visions on a number of regional and international issues, as well as Egypt's stances regarding its internal affairs, sovereignty, political positions and independent national decisions.

Since the 30 June revolution, Egypt's foreign policy has adopted a new approach in its foreign relations, particularly with the major countries. Its policies aim to strengthen Egyptian interests, protect national security, preserve the Egyptian sovereignty and not intervene in the internal affairs of any country. A few days before Egypt's FM's upcoming visit to Washington, we will review in the following lines the determinants of the Egyptian foreign policy toward the United States of America and the process of re-shaping the joint relations between the two countries.

- On 12 February, the former US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson, visited Egypt. During his visit, what can be described as "features of the strategy governing the Egyptian-American relations in the future period" was revealed. However, changes in the regional arena have postponed what has been agreed upon between the two countries to push forward their bilateral relations to become full partnership. In addition, the dismissal of Tillerson was an effective factor in freezing what was agreed upon.

- The most important thing that was postponed after Tillerson's visit to Cairo was Washington's proposal to make a 2 + 2 mechanism to effectively manage relations between the two countries. This proposal reflects the desire of the United States to develop its relations with Egypt. This mechanism aims to hold periodic consultations between the ministers of foreign affairs and defense of both countries regarding the political and military aspects.

- During Shoukry's upcoming visit to Washington next month, it is certain that the US proposal will be reintroduced. It is a unique diplomatic tool pursued by the US administration with the strategic countries of great importance worldwide. However, using such formula with Egypt means a major strategic shift for the US administration's vision for Egypt.

-Egypt manages its relations with the United States away from the political positions of both countries over regional issues. However, the US administration does not understand this method that does not confuse bilateral relations with regional issues such as the Palestinian issue and Syrian crisis. Therefore, Egypt will present its vision regarding the shape and nature of the joint relations with the US.

- Egypt's relations with the United States and other countries are based on the independence of the national decision. The Egyptian national interest is the sole governing the decision maker in making decisions.

- Egypt is implementing at a steady pace the strategy of diversifying its international relations. Therefore, the US administration must understand that Egypt will not depend on a sole pole in its foreign relations or develop relations with a state at the expense of others.

- Egypt puts its war against terrorism as a test for the international powers' seriousness in facing terrorism. Therefore, the United States should support the Egyptian efforts aimed at protecting the interests of the region and the world. Thus, more joint understandings will be made, during the coming period, between the two countries to discuss mechanisms of cooperation in combating terrorism and the support that the United States can provide to Egypt in this regard.

- As the two countries aim to cooperate in their war against terrorism, Egypt will present its comprehensive perspective for this issue, in which Egypt sees that all terrorist organizations emerged from one womb. Hence, the Egyptian administration may urge its American counterpart not to delay the classification of the Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist group and to stop receiving its elements in Washington.

- In the context of fighting terrorism and the comprehensive Egyptian vision, there are some issues that Washington must be decided upon, especially with regard to its stance from the supporters of terrorism such as the emirate of Qatar.

- With regard to the American aid, Egypt sees that the US support  benefits the two countries and has an equal return on both sides. We must take into consideration that every dollar spent by the United States on development projects in Egypt is offset by more than $ 30 Egyptian imports from America. The US civilian aid worth $ 250 million annually, while Egypt imports from the United States worth $ 6,835 million. It is worth mentioning that US aid to Egypt is $ 1500 million out of $ 216 billion of Egypt's GDP.

- As for the $ 1.3 billion military aid to Egypt, cutting it requires a special legislation that must be approved by Congress and signed by the President. However, not only Egypt will be affected by such decision, but also the American arms industry, as Egypt does not receive this aid in cash, but in the form of funding for the purchase of US weapons.

- Washington knows that cutting off military aid to Egypt necessarily means that Cairo will search for another source of weapons. Although Egypt has already started this approach three years ago, it resort to China, South Korea, France, Japan and Russia, but such decision, if approved, would directly mean the Egyptian expansion in this approach.

- Egypt is the biggest importer of wheat in the world, which consumes about 9.6 million tons of wheat per year to produce subsidized bread. It imported 5.580 million tons of wheat in 2016-2017 compared to 4.440 million tons in the previous year. Therefore, the continuation of trade relations between Egypt and the United States is in favor of these contracts, whereby Egypt pays millions of dollars. But after several recent measures that was considered by Egypt as blackmail, Egypt has imported wheat from several countries through international stock exchanges rather than importing it from a specific country.

- Regarding human rights situation, the Egyptian state believes that it is the most concerned about it as a duty guaranteed by the Egyptian Constitution, which obliges the government to fulfill what it requires. However, it should be borne in mind that human rights in Egypt may differ from any other country due to several factors and considerations, the most important of which are the terrorist attacks against Egypt. Consequently, the Egyptian President has added "combating terrorism" to human rights in Egypt. Moreover, Egypt's foreign policy has faced the external interference that uses human rights as a mean or a pretext to impose pressure on Egypt.

- Egypt sees that economic cooperation with the United States should witness a remarkable development during the coming period, to keep pace with what Egypt has achieved in relation to providing a suitable environment for foreign investment.

- On the Palestinian issue, the Egyptian position is unchanged. This position rejects to comply with any resolutions that violate international law, which supports Palestinian rights to establish their independent state on the borders of June 4, 1967, with East Jerusalem as its capital.

-It is not entirely possible that Egypt would involve in what is known as "the deal of the century", which is based on the idea of giving up part of the Sinai Peninsula for the Palestinians, as Egypt rejected such proposal in form and subject.

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<![CDATA[ Preparations underway for President Sisi's swearing-in ceremony ]]> Thu, 24 May 2018 11:37:19 EET http://en.theinternational.club/news/327 After winning a second term with 97 per cent of the vote in Egypt's 2018 presidential elections, incumbent President Abdel-Fattah El-Sisi is expected to take his new oath of office in parliament.

Parliamentary spokesman Salah Hassaballah told reporters this week that El-Sisi will be sworn in for his second term on 2 June. "Intensive contacts between the president's office and parliament's secretariat-general are underway to conclude preparations for the swearing-in ceremony scheduled for the first week of June," Hassaballah said.

Kamel El-Wazir, head of the army's engineering organization, and parliament's secretary-secretary Ahmed Saadeddin reviewed this week renovation works of parliament's main buildings ahead of the swearing-in ceremony. "The works also include renovating parliament's plenary meeting hall in which El-Sisi will take the oath," said Saadeddin.

In 2014, when no parliament was sitting, El-Sisi was sworn before the Supreme Constitutional Court (SCC). Article 144 of the constitution states that the elected president must be sworn in before parliament.

El-Sisi is also expected to deliver a speech following the swearing-in ceremony. Speaking at the recent Fifth Youth Forum on 16 May, El-Sisi said political life in Egypt is in pressing need of stronger parties capable of moving the country forward. "It is a good thing that we now have representatives from eight or nine political parties in parliament," El-Sisi said, nonetheless arguing that political parties with similar ideological platforms should unite.

It is not certain whether El-Sisi's swearing-in will be followed by the government's resignation. Hassaballah argued that there is no constitutional or legislative article that stipulates that the government submit its resignation following the end of the presidential term and the swearing-in ceremony.

Several MPs have slammed government of Prime Minister Sherif Ismail in recent weeks, accusing it of working in favour of the wealthy classes and implementing IMF policies that have left millions of Egyptians living under the poverty line.

The latest wave of attacks came last week when the government surprised all by increasing the price of Cairo's underground Metro system by a significant margin. Infuriated, MPs accused the government of snubbing parliament because it took the decision without notice or a chance for the public to prepare.

Cabinet spokesman Ashraf Sultan told reporters early this month that a cabinet reshuffle in Egypt is expected at any time. However, he stressed, "regardless of news about this reshuffle, the government believes that it has to do its job up to the last moment," Sultan said.

 

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<![CDATA[ U.S. Imminent Strike Against Syria ]]> Thu, 12 Apr 2018 20:53:37 EET http://en.theinternational.club/news/261 Defense Secretary Jim Mattis took pains on Thursday to walk back President Trump’s threats of an imminent strike on Syria, reflecting mounting concerns at the Pentagon that a concerted bombing campaign could escalate into a wider conflict between Russia, Iran and the West.

A Thursday afternoon meeting is scheduled of the president’s top national security advisers, during which Mr. Mattis is expected to urge caution and consideration of a wider strategy. Defense Department officials said that will include trying to get more commitments from allies of help immediately after any strikes.

Speaking before the House Armed Services Committee, Mr. Mattis said that retaliation for the suspected chemical weapons attack had to be balanced against the threat of a wider war.

 “We are trying to stop the murder of innocent people. But on a strategic level, it’s how do we keep this from escalating out of control — if you get my drift on that,” Mr. Mattis said.

He added that lawmakers would be notified before any strikes against Syrian weapons facilities and airfields to punish President Bashar al-Assad’s suspected use of chemical weapons over the weekend. The Pentagon alerted lawmakers before an April 2017 cruise missile attack on Shayrat air base following a similar chemical weapons attack on Syrian civilians.

Trump Says Missiles ‘Will Be Coming’ at Syria. Beyond That Lies Uncertainty. APRIL 11, 2018

Trump, for his part, said he would make a decision “fairly soon” about a strike. “We’re looking very, very seriously, very closely at that whole situation and we’ll see what happens, folks, we’ll see what happens,” he told reporters at the White House.

The president said in a Thursday morning tweet that he had never telegraphed the timing of an attack on Syria, and that such a strike “could be very soon or not so soon at all!”

On Thursday, President Emmanuel Macron of France cited proof that the Syrian government had used chemical weapons in a deadly attack on a suburb of Damascus, the capital.

 “We have proof that last week, 10 days ago even, chemical weapons were used — at least chlorine — and that they were used by the regime of Bashar al-Assad,” Macron said in an interview on TF1, a French television station.

He did not detail what specific proof he was referring to, and said that France was working in close coordination with the Trump administration on the issue.

Britain’s cabinet also was set to meet on Thursday to discuss joining a military operation with the United States, the BBC reported. British submarines were ordered within missile range of Syria, according to The Daily Telegraph.

The Trump administration has not yet confirmed the use of chemical weapons by the Syrian regime and wants to coordinate its response with allies. But Germany announced that it would not be part of any coordinated military action in Syria, even as Chancellor Angela Merkel stressed the importance of Western powers sending a clear, united message that using chemical weapons “is unacceptable.”

 “Germany will not take part in possible military action — I want to make clear again that there are no decisions,” Ms. Merkel said after meeting with Lars Lokke Rasmussen of Denmark in Berlin.

Germany refused to take part in the American-led war in Iraq, and in 2011 abstained from a United Nations Security Council resolution authorizing the use of military force to protect civilians in Libya.

Heeding Mr. Trump’s warning on Wednesday about an American response, Syria has moved military aircraft to the Russian base near Latakia, and is working to protect important weapons systems. The Russians and Iranians have also been preparing for an American response.

An estimated 2,000 American troops in Syria have been focused exclusively on fighting the ISIS. Russian and Iranian forces are also stationed in Syria, ostensibly to support Assad’s fight against the extremists.

Nikki R. Haley, the United States ambassador to the United Nations, said “we definitely have enough proof,” of a chemical weapons attack.

 “But now we just have to be thoughtful in our action,” Ms. Haley told Andrea Mitchell of NBC News. “So we’ll see what happens. I know that the president’s looking at his options and the national security team is trying to give him as many options as we can and we’ll be thoughtful about it and see what happens.”

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<![CDATA[ Comparative study: Comprehensive analysis of the 2018 presidential elections figures ]]> Wed, 04 Apr 2018 14:56:48 EET http://en.theinternational.club/news/255  

By: Ahmed Imbabi

In its first practical test in organizing elections, the National Election Authority (NEA) has announced the final result of Egypt's 2018 presidential election, in which Egyptian President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi has been re-elected for a second term with 97% of votes. El-Sisi has obtained 21,835,387 of total votes.

Egypt's 2018 presidential election is the fourth multiparty elections being held in Egypt through the direct secret ballot. In addition, it is the first elections supervised by NEA, which was formed as an independent body under the new Constitution. A total of 54 local civil organizations and nine international and Arab organizations have observed and monitored the voting process. These organizations included the African Union, the League of Arab States and the Islamic Action Organization.

Before analyzing the results of voting of the Egyptians abroad and in the country's 27 governorates in detail, we have to highlight the general atmosphere of this year's elections compares with the 2014 presidential election. There are some common factors to the two processes, the most important of which is the existence of two candidates, including President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi.

Despite it coincided with a comprehensive military operation, led by the armed and police forces, against terrorism, the 2018 presidential elections was held in a more stable political and security climate than in the 2014 elections. Unlike the 2014 elections, which took place in a transitional period after 30 June Revolution and within the roadmap aimed at restoring the state institutions, this year's elections held at a time when the Egyptian state is working on economic reform programme and a number of major projects as well as the existence of various constitutional institutions of the state.

From this general prospective, we can analyze voter turnout at the 2018 presidential elections, as well as comparing its various figures with the previous elections. We will explain separately the figures announced by NEA in every governorate.

 

Nmber of voters:

- According to the database of registered voters, the number of eligible voters is 59,078,138 voters.

- In contrast, the number of eligible voters in the 2014 elections was 53,909,306 voters.

This means that there is an increase in the database of registered voters of this year's election reached to 5,168, 832 voters.

- Number of voters who casted their votes

- In the 2018 elections, the number of voters who casted their votes inside Egypt is 24,097,092 voters, while the total number of votes inside Egypt and abroad has reached 24,254,152 votes.

- Meanwhile, the total number of voters who casted their votes in the 2014 elections was 25,578,223 voters.

- The number of voters in the 2018 elections was lower than in 2014, by about 1,324,071 votes.

Voter turnout

- In the elections of 2018, the voter turnout was about 41.05% of the total number of eligible voters.

- This turnout is lower than the participation in the 2014 elections, which was 47.45%.

We must take into our consideration that there is an increase in the voters database of this year's election reached to 5,168, 832 voters.

- Number of votes of Egyptians abroad:

- In the 2018 elections, a total number of 157,060 voters of Egyptians abroad has casted their votes.

- The turnout of Egyptians abroad was half of those who casted their votes in the 2014 elections. A total number of 318,033 of Egyptians abroad has casted their votes in 2014.

- Number of valid votes:

- In the 2018 elections, the percentage of valid votes reached 22,421,921 votes, at 92.73%.

- In the 2014 elections, the percentage of valid votes reached 24,537,615 votes.

- Number of void votes:

- In the 2018 elections, the number of void votes amounted to 1, 762, 231 votes, at 7.27%.

- In the 2014 elections, the number of void votes reached 1,040,607 votes, which means that the number of void votes in this year's elections has increased (719,624 votes).

- The number of votes in favour of President El-Sisi:

In the 2018 elections, President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi has received 21,835,378 votes, representing 97.08% of the total number of voters.

These figures are close to the result of the 2014 elections, where he received 23,780,104 votes, at 96.9%. This means that El-Sisi retained a large proportion of the same voters in the last election, taking into account the general atmosphere in which the voting process took place.

- Number of votes in favour of Moussa Moustafa Moussa:

- Mousse MostafaMousi, the sole competitor against President El-Sisi, has received 656,534 votes, at 2.92%.

- This percentage is similar to the 2014 election, where Sisi competed against Hamdeen Sabahy, who received 757,511 votes, at 3.1%.

Governorate witnessed high participation:

1-In the 2018 elections

Cairo - Sharqia - Dakahlia - Behaira - Gharbia - Giza - Alexandria

2-In the 2014 elections

Cairo - Dakahlia - Sharqia - Giza - Gharbia - Alexandria

This means that there is a steady voting rates in the same governorates during the two electoral processes, although the governorate of Behaira has witnessed an increase in the number of voters than in 2014. It is worth mentioning that these governorates have the largest number of voters compared with the other governorates.

Governorate witnessed low participation:

1-In the 2018 elections

South Sinai - North Sinai - New Valley - Red Sea - Matrouh - Suez

2-In the 2014 elections

South Sinai - Matrouh - New Valley - North Sinai - Red Sea - Suez

This indicates that the percentage of voter's turnout in the two electoral processes is similar in the same governorates, taking into account that these governorates have less number of voters compared with the other governorates.

Governorate witnessed massive turnout:

1-In the 2018 elections

New Valley - South Sinai - Gharbia - Port Said - Menoufia - Sharqia - Dakahlia

2-In the 2014 elections

Menoufia - Port Said - Gharbia - Dakahlia - Qalyubia - Damietta - Sharqia - Cairo

This means that some governorates have maintained the same turnout at the two elecoral processes. However, it was a surprise that New Valley governorate, and then South Sinai, has ranked first regarding the massive turnout in the 2018 elections, despite the low number of voters in these governorates compared to the rest governorates. In addition, the voter turnout has declined in governorates such as Menoufia and Damietta.

Governorate witnessed low turnout:

1-In the 2018 elections

Aswan - Qena - North Sinai - Giza - Luxor - Sohag - Cairo

2-In the 2014 elections

Matrouh - Fayoum - Assiut - Qena - North Sinai - Sohag

It is noted that there is a change in the governorates that witnessed low turnout in the two electoral processes. It is noteworthy that in the 2018 elections, the governorates of the largest number of voters, such as Cairo and Giza, have witnessed low turnout. However, it was a positive sign that governorates such as Fayoum and Matrouh have witnessed high turnout than in the 2014 elections.

- Governorates witnessed the largest number of votes in favour of President El-Sisi:

1-In the 2018 elections

Cairo - Sharqia - Dakahlia - Behaira - Gharbia - Giza - Alexandria

2-In the 2014 elections

Cairo - Dakahlia - Sharqia - Giza - Gharbia - Alexandria

- There is a similarity in same list of governorates, taking into account that these governorates have the largest number of voters compared to the other governorates.

- Governorates witnessed the lower number of votes in favour of President El-Sisi:

1-In the 2018 elections

South Sinai - North Sinai - New Valley - Matrouh - Red Sea - Suez

2-In the 2014 elections

South Sinai - Matrouh - New Valley - North Sinai - Red Sea - Suez.

- Despite the similarity of the list of governorates, it is necessary to take into account the low number of voters in these governorates compared to the rest governorates.

- Governorates witnessed an increase in voter turnout

In the 2018 elections, voter turn out's percentages in 11 governorates rose than in the 2014 elections. However, it was noticeable that most of these governorates were from Upper Egypt.

-1 Behaira - the voter turnout rose by 163,386 votes

2-Kafr El-Sheikh - voter turnout rose by 38,399 votes

3-Matrouh - voter turnout rose by 41,416 votes

4-Fayoum - voter turnout rose by 317,176 votes

5-BeniSuef - voter turnout rose by 202,335 votes

6-Minya - voter turnout rose by 367,238 votes

7-Assiut - voter turnout rose by 320,101 votes

8-Sohag - voter turnout rose by 50,933 votes

9-New Valley - voter turnout rose by- 33,693 votes

10-Red Sea - voter turnout rose by 25,304 votes

11-South Sinai - voter turnout rose by 13,726

- Governorates witnessed lower turnout

In the 2018 elections, the percentage of voter turnout declined in 16 governorates than in the 2014 elections, as well as the voter turnout of Egyptians abroad.

1-Cairo - voter turnout declined by 907,193 votes

2-Alexandria - voter turnout declined by 295,981 votes

3-Giza - voter turnout declined by 359,188

4-Sharqia - voter turnout declined by 64,184 votes

5-Qalyubia - voter turnout declined by 207,318 votes

6-Menoufia - voter turnout declined by 250,944 votes

7-Gharbia - voter turnout declined by 18,1003 votes

8-Dakahlia - voter turnout declined by 226,856 votes

9-Port Said - voter turnout declined by 37,906 votes

10-Ismailia - voter turnout declined by42,625 votes

11-Suez - voter turnout declined by 9,855 votes

12-Damietta - voter turnout declined by 76,543 votes

13-Qena - voter turnout declined by 1,314 votes

14-Aswan - voter turnout declined by 33,982

15-Luxor - voter turnout declined by 28,869

16-North Sinai - voter turnout declined by 1,210 votes.

17-Egyptians abroad turnout - voter turnout declined by 160,973 votes.

 

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<![CDATA[ Lessons learned from the 2018 presidential election scene ]]> Sat, 31 Mar 2018 18:33:04 EET http://en.theinternational.club/news/253 By: Ahmed Imbabi

The 2018 presidential election has ended in Egypt and abroad. It witnessed active participation of various segments of Egyptian society. Egyptians came out to fulfill their constitutional duty by voting to choose their president.

The preliminary figures show President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi won around 90% of the vote over sole rival, Ghad Party head Moussa Mostafa Moussa. The number of voters exceeded 24 million, a figure close to the number of voters who had casted their votes in the presidential election of 2014, with a difference in participation rates.

According to figures, the number of eligable voters in 2018 presidential elections reached 60 million voters, with an increase of around 6 million voters compared to 2014 elections, during which over 24,537 million voters have participated in.

The official result of the National Election Authority (NEA) has not shown, as yet. Far from discussing the preliminary figures, the elections' scene, however, included a series of important phenomena from which we can draw lessons worthy to be addressed, to use them in political practice in the upcoming elections. These lessons can be summarized in the following points:

-The lesson of organizing and securing the elections

The NEA has succeeded in its first practical test in organizing presidential elections since its formation in accordance with the Constitution's provisions as an independent authority assigned to manage referendums, parliamentary and presidential elections.

Organizing the elections in accordance with strict legal and administrative mechanisms and norms reflected the expertise and professionalism of the authority. In addition, the process was supervised by judges to guarantee integrity of elections.

One of the most prominent scenes of the presidential elections was organizing and securing it, as well as accelerating the process of voting. The speed of the elections' procedures, in accordance with the rules and guidelines set by NEA, contributed to the completion of polling process easily. Besides, most voters took just one minute to cast their votes, which helped in ending voters' queues in some polling stations.

Moreover, the NEA took tight measures to secure ballot papers and boxes, to ensure that voters' will is not manipulated or falsified.

The testimony of various local and international observers regarding the electoral process may be a perfect proof that the NEA and state institutions, particularly the armed forces and the police, have succeeded in securing the electoral process and completing it safely.

-The lesson of consolidating pluralism

During the elections, the NEA has made its decisions according to the constitution. Accordingly, the electoral process began to establish the constitutional principle of holding pluralistic elections by direct secret ballot.

Thus, the authority has opened the nomination process up to everyone who meets the conditions to submit his candidacy documents without hindrance in terms of the implementation of the constitutional principle.

By adhering to provisions of the constitution and law, the elections took place without counterfeiting and falsification of voters' will. The integrity of elections has changed a mental image of about elections to a small segment of the public opinion.

In this sense, the political and partisan powers must exert more effective efforts to provide new cadres that could enter the competition in the next parliamentary elections of 2020. Then, they can nominate more than a presidential candidate in the 2022 elections.

-The lesson of the positive participation in the celebration

One of the elections' positives is the phenomenon of celebrating before polling stations. This image reflects a real change in voter's behavior regarding the elections.

For a long time, the elections process was governed by bribes, bullying, using power, tribal polarization, and religious exploitation. But now, the election is being governed in accordance electoral rules and procedures.

Accordingly, the percentage of voters who cast their votes in the elections had expressed the real will of the Egyptians voter, without falsification, manipulation, or exploitation.

Perhaps the most important thing in the 2018 presidential election is the presence of millions in the streets to support their state, specifically the armed forces and police, in its war against terrorism.

This feeling was interpreted in many images, the most important of which is that voters had chanted a song in supporting the Egyptian Army. They also raised pictures of martyrs before the polling stations.

-The lesson of the participation of women and people with special needs

One of the most important scenes in the electoral process is the participation of different segments of the Egyptian society, particularly the Egyptian women, who be among the first queues, as well as the elderly.

In the elections that took place inside Egypt and abroad, the polling stations witnessed high massive turnout from women of different ages and people with special needs. It is worth mentioning that the state announced that this year is the year of people with special needs. In addition, several sectors of young people, workers and employees, especially non-regular employment, have also participated in the elections.

- The lesson of addressing rumors

The integration of roles played by the state institutions alongside the NEA to secure the organization of the electoral process, through creating operations room, is one of the administration's positives during the electoral process.

The action system included the cabinet's operations room dedicated to respond to rumors that accompanied the electoral process. The most important rumor that was addressed is the one inciting not to participate in the elections.

Furthermore, the armed and police forces have made operation rooms to follow up the process of securing the polling stations. While the Judges' Club and the Ministry of Justice have made operation rooms to follow up the judges' work in all polling stations. In addition, Ministry of Health has created an operation room to respond to any emergencies.

In addition, the NEA's operations room has followed up the whole process. The authority also held a daily press conference, to introduce the public to the latest details and information about the voting process, and to responds to all inquiries regarding the elections.

-The lesson of discipline

One of the important scenes of the 2018 presidential election is the discipline. In this regard, the discipline has appeared during the process of organization, procedures of voting and the election campaigns.

During the elections, the campaign of President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi and his rival MoussaMoustafaMoussa were committed to the norms of the NEA in terms of campaigning period and electoral silence, as well as the work of the representatives of candidates in polling stations.

This was confirmed by the NEA's spokesman, Mahmoud Al Sharif, who pointed out in more than a press conference that the two candidates had committed to the procedures and rules of the electoral process.

- A lesson for those who are defaming the elections abroad

The presidential elections and the percentage of participation are a popular response to all campaigns aimed at demonizing the elections abroad . It also refuted the Muslim Brotherhood's claims. The massive turnout from Egyptians has stressed their support to the political leadership and the actions taken by the state to address various challenges, including countering terrorism and the economic reform. Furthermore, the elections came to give a new mandate to the political leadership to complete the project of building a modern national state.

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<![CDATA[ Palestinian reconciliation in danger.. Egypt is fighting against external interventions ]]> Sat, 24 Mar 2018 14:31:51 EET http://en.theinternational.club/news/243 By: Hamada Al Kohly

An official Palestinian source described the process of reconciliation as "in danger ", after an attempt to assassinate Palestinian Prime Minister Rami al-Hamdallah and its intelligence chief, Majed Faraj, during a visit to the Gaza Strip a few days ago.

"The assassination attempt did not surprise the Palestinian Authority. This is the style of Hamas whenever it came close to hand over the reins in Gaza," the source added.

Furthermore, the source revealed that an Egyptian delegation will pay a visit to Ramallah, to salvage the reconciliation, in light of Egypt's contacts with Hamas side in the past few days.

The official Palestinian source noted that Egypt is facing strong foreign interventions aim to thwart its efforts to complete the reconciliation issue. He pointed out not only regional powers that do not want to end the Palestinian division, but also major international ones.

 

Regarding the reconciliation, the current situation can be summarized as following:

- Those who carried out the assassination attempt succeeded in directing all efforts to reach the offenders instead of implementing the terms of reconciliation. Thus, the completion of the reconciliation process became a secondary issue.

- The tone of accusations between Fatah and Hamas has returned again. Upon the incident, Fatah immediately initiated accusing Hamas of responsibility for the assassination attempt. The accusations reached its peak, as the President of the Palestinian Authority, Mahmoud Abbas has clearly blamed Hamas  for Gaza attack. "We are fully aware that Hamas is the one who stands behind that incident and carried it out," he said.

- Fatah is continuing to exploit the incident in a manner seen by Egypt as away from reality. Despite there were many beneficiaries of this incident, Fatah has accused Hamas of carrying out the attack just a few minutes after it took place. In addition, the measures announced by the Palestinian Authority in response to the incident are the same actions that it places as an obstacle to the implementation of reconciliation, which suggests that the authority seeks to exploit the incident.

The Palestinian Authority is imposing financial sanctions on Hamas. It also on the way to tightening these sanctions. However, Abu Mazen said in his speech on Monday, that the people of Gaza will understand these measures. It is a misplaced bet as Gaza's citizens have become angrier at both Fatah and Hamas. Furthermore, the current situation and the expected severe sanctions may warn of more anger that neither the authority nor Hamas can accommodate it.

- Mr. Mahmoud Abbas said that there aren’t two sides to the division, rather only one side (Hamas) that is consolidating it and enforces an illegal de facto situation. However, the reality and what the Palestinian citizen knows is that there are commitments that were not fulfilled by the Palestinian Authority and Hamas.

- Hamas Movement also continues to obstruct the implementation of reconciliation by continuing to collect duties and taxes for the benefit of its treasury. It also collects all the revenues of the strip, including revenue from the sale of fuel to private companies, which is sold at high prices. Hamas also rejects to allow the government to perform its functions comprehensively in all areas, as is the case in the West Bank. In addition, the employees' issue in Gaza is one of the most complicated files facing the reconciliation, where the government refuses to pay their salaries until now. On the other hand, the administrative and legal committee, formed by Cairo agreement, is studying their files.

- It is incomprehensible that Hamas, which accepted more harsh measures for its administration of the strip and the security file, to announce now that the employees' issue is one of the obstacles facing the reconciliation process and affects the agreement. In addition, it's Vice President has described this issue as red line.

Hamas' weapons is one of the main obstacles to the completion of the reconciliation agreement. Fatah Movement refuses to negotiate on this matter until electing new president of the Palestinian Authority, and then agreeing on a formula to integrate the weapons of Hamas within the authority of the "Palestinian state". Meanwhile, Hamas announced it will not hand its weapons over except in event that Palestine is liberated from the Israeli occupation.

- The accusations from Abu Mazen to Hamas during his last speech were unspoken repudiation of the reconciliation agreement. He claimed that Hamas carried out a coup in 2007, and said that this was not justified. He did not wait for the results of the investigations, which are supervised by Egypt.

- The Palestinian president said that Hamas leader in Gaza, Yahya Sinwar, told him in Cairo that if Hamas has four tunnels, it will increase them to be 100. Certainly, Cairo must play its role in searching for the validity of these details and the purpose of announcing it at this time!

- During these events, it is also remarkable that Wataniya Mobile refused to cooperate with the Prosecution in some security inquiries recently including investigations into the assassination attempt.

In fact, the people of the Gaza Strip are the victim of the conflict between Fatah and Hamas and what has happened will only be paid by nearly two million Palestinians.

Finally, Egypt called Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas to calm things down and to proceed with the investigations as an independent file away from the reconciliation.

In addition, President Al-Sisi made a phone conversation with the Palestinian president to defuse the escalating confrontation and avoid complicating the issue .

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<![CDATA[ "Juniper Cobra".. American military exercise simulates comprehensive war on Tel Aviv ]]> Tue, 13 Mar 2018 15:49:26 EET http://en.theinternational.club/news/215 By; Shaymaa Abu Amera

The American and Israeli militaries launched last Sunday the so-called "Juniper Cobra" military drill that simulates a missile attack on Israel from three fronts. Nearly 5,000 Israeli and American troops are participating in the largest military exercises in the region.

It simulates a full-scale attack on Israel from more than one front, including the northern border with Lebanon and the southern border with the Gaza Strip.

Some days ago, an American aircraft carrier arrived at the Port of Haifa, carrying 30 warplanes and helicopters and about 2,500 US marines to participate in the exercises.

The Israeli-American military exercise comes in light of the escalating statements made by Israeli officials about the threat of massive missile and rocket barrages on Israel coming from Iran, Lebanon and the Gaza Strip.

The exercise witnesses the participation of the Israeli Aerial Defense Forces include the Aerial Defense Division, IAF Headquarters, a designated exercise directorate and Home Front Command.

Brig. Gen. ZvikaHaimovich, chief of Israel's Aerial Defense, said that Juniper Cobra is the largest joint exercise between the two countries. He added that it takes place every two years since 2001. Haimovich stressed that the drill aims to raise the level of readiness of Israeli and American military personnel to deal with potential attacks on Israel.

The Israeli leader said that in case of a major new war in the region, Israel will be attacked by multiple salvos, more accurate rockets and missiles through its enemies in the south, north and east.

Two warships, three helicopters, 25 aircraft, TPY-2 radar, Patriots, THAAD and the AEGIS Combat System are the American contribution to the military exercise. While Israel's contribution included the Iron Dome, David's Sling and Patriot.

For his part, Lt. Gen. Richard Clark, commander of the US troops, said American forces are ready to deploy in Israel at Israel's request. Clark noted that the exercise's importance lies in the development of coordination at the leadership level.

"In case Israel is attacked, US troops will be deployed in the region within two or three days of making a political decision in this regard," he stated.

Clark pledged that all American military personnel being deployed in Israel are ready to sacrifice their lives for the Jewish state. He added that the Pentagon does not mind existence of casualties among its troops in the event of a new war had broken down in the region.

 

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<![CDATA[ The Launch of Region’s First Science Park in Egypt ]]> Sat, 24 Feb 2018 19:38:17 EET http://en.theinternational.club/news/184 by:  Denis Opudo, tech in africa

Science and Innovation Park (SIP) first phase will be launched in May this year in Egypt. The initiative is funded by the British University in Egypt and TusPark Holdings.

TusParks is the company managing partner.  As a partner, the company will assist in the management of the Business Incubator and the Science Park. In addition to management, TusParks will also provide technical, operation aids and business innovative skills.

The second launching is projected to be in November 2018. The estimated project budget will cost about $4.5 million. The system will also require nearly 14,000 square meters land situated in El Shorouk City.  The core mandate of SIP is to serve local business community within El Shorouk City. Targeted industrial surrounding zones include 10th of Ramadan, Badr City, and Obour City.

The system will still welcome both local and foreign startups which abide by the Egyptian laws. The focus of the company now is building and nurturing of startups across Africa and beyond.

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<![CDATA[ Omani Ministry of Information honors Al-Khamis, Mkarem platform ]]> Sun, 04 Feb 2018 15:35:46 EET http://en.theinternational.club/news/150 The Omani Ministry of Information has honored a number of leading journalists from Sultanate of Oman and Gulf countries in a ceremony held at the Second Media Family Forum.

During the event, the ministry unveiled the media excellence awards in journalism fields, as well as launching a number of its publications. Omani media men who won Arab and international awards in 2017 will be also honored in the event. Held in cooperation with the Public Authority for Radio & TV (PART), the ceremony has orgainsed at SQU Cultural Centre, in the presence of His Excellency Haitham bin Tariq Al Said, Minister of Heritage and Culture, and HE Dr. Abdel Moneim Bin Mansour Al Hassani, Minister of Information.

The Kuwaiti journalist Madhi Al-Khamis, Secretary-General of the Arab Media Forum, has received the shield of honor during the ceremony, in recognition of his media efforts at the level of the Gulf and the Arab world.

During the ceremony, a number of the Ministry of Information publications has launched, as well as presenting a documentary film about "Mkarem" platform, in recognition of the platform's role in spreading the values of love, peace, friendship, and mercy. It also helped in spreading positive moral values around the world, improving the environment surrounding and affecting the youth, countering and fighting the ideas and behaviors of extremism, radicalization, and terrorism, educating and helping our youth, as well as distancing them from negative thoughts and behaviors.

For his part, Al Hassani praised the human role of Makarem platform as one of the social media's meaningful platforms, stressing the importance of its role in helping the youth to understand the principles of ethics, diligence and patience. During his speech, he further hailed the efforts of the influential personalities who are participating in presenting the platform's programs in the fields of religion, sports, art, society and politics.

Mkarem platform is dedicated to providing valuable and objective information. It was established in partnership between the journalist Madhi Al-Khamis and the businessman Abdullah Al Shaheen.

It is worth mentioning that the general vision of the Media Family Forum is to raise awareness of the Omani media men, as well as enhancing the relationship between official organizations and media students, as well as availing a humanitarian media environment that supports the different media initiatives and efforts.

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<![CDATA[ Egypt 's way to the presidency of African Union ]]> Wed, 31 Jan 2018 12:58:14 EET http://en.theinternational.club/news/147 By: Hamada Al- Kohly

In July 2013, just two days after Former President Mohamed Morsi was removed from office after a great revolution led by the Egyptian people and protected by the Egyptian army, the African Union (AU) decided to freeze the membership of Egypt. The move came for the lack of the member states' awareness about what happened in Egypt, and the nature of the incidents it witnessed. It may come as a result of external pressure suffered by some of the African countries that voted in favor of that resolution.

Thus, it is not unusual for a country like Egypt, the founding member of AU,  to expresses deep regret for making this resolution. Then, it began to work on removing the resolution and setting things right. It was no surprise for Egypt to restore its seat in June 2014, after holding the presidential elections. As Africa is the natural extension of our nation, Egypt's trip towards making several achievements in the black continent had begun. Under the leadership of Egyptian President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi, these efforts were culminated in assuming the presidency of the African Union in 2019.

What did the Egyptian state do after freezing its membership in 2013 to the election of Egypt to chair AU?

In the Constitution of Egypt 2014, the preamble states that Egypt is the gift of the Nile for Egyptians and the gift of Egyptians to humanity. With its unique location and history, Egypt is the Arab heart of the world. It is the meeting point of world civilizations and cultures and the crossroads of its maritime transportation and communications. It is the head of Africa on the Mediterranean and the estuary of its greatest river: the Nile.

These words had brought Egypt back on the African path. However, after the adoption of the constitution, Cairo had to accomplish great tasks first to regain its lost membership in the continental union. Then, Egypt worked re-establish confidence among its African brothers. Egypt founded itself facing this test as a result of its internal conditions it experienced and its neglect of the continent and its affairs over two decades.

Indications of 30 June policy towards Africa:

In the wake of 30 June Revolution, the Egyptian move towards the African continent came on the basis of several priorities, the most prominent of which are making the process of enhancing the relations with the continent's countries as top priority for the political decision maker in Egypt, intensifying meetings with African leaders, holding several visits by Egypt's President to the continent's countries, and participating regularly in the African summits. The Egyptian policy towards the continent of Africa also included the reception of Africa's leaders, officials and ministers to contribute to enhancing communication with African countries, increasing its contribution in UN peacekeeping operations, intensifying the activities of the Egyptian Agency of Partnership for Development, and increasing the number of scholarships for African students, as well as sending senior officials to the countries of the continent as personal envoys of the President, headed by the President's Advisor Eng. Ibrahim Mahalb, who was sent to many countries of the continent such as Equatorial Guinea, Chad, Tanzania, Ethiopia and Eritrea.

With these efforts, Egypt worked hard with the African Union Wise Men Committee delegation, led by former Malian president Alpha Omar Konare. This committee was formed to identify Egypt's situation and collect information, to make what is required on the decision to suspend Egypt from the AU following Mohamed Morsi's removal. The AU's resolution depended on the Lomé Declaration, which dealt with specific cases of transferring power in an unconstitutional manner, even though the Egyptian situation did not apply to it. Where Egypt has witnessed a popular revolution in which millions of Egyptians participated.

Coinciding with the multiple visits of the committee, in which Egypt insisted to remain away from any mediation with the ousted regime, Egypt has sent six envoys to all African countries in official visits to meet African leaders and officials, to convey oral messages about the situation in Egypt following 30 June Revolution.

Despite the African decision, Egypt participated in the Arab-African Summit held in Kuwait on 19-20 November 2013. It also participated in the COMESA Summit held in Kinshasa in February 2014, ministerial-level meetings of Community of Sahel-Saharan States, held in March 2014 in Khartoum, the EU Summit in Brussels held in April 2014, before regaining its membership in June 2014.

Egypt's efforts in Africa since 2014:

- Since assuming office, President Al-Sisi has made 21 visits to African countries, representing more than 30% of all foreign presidential visits.

- President Al-Sisi held about 120 meetings with African leaders and officials, who visited Egypt during the past three years, out of 550 meetings held by the president with Egypt's visitors from leaders and officials of the world and international organizations.

- In the first year of Al-Sisi term, he made 27 foreign visits, seven of which were made to African countries, including: Sudan (3 visits), Ethiopia (2 visits), Equatorial Guinea (1 visit), and Algeria (1 visit).

In the first year of his term, the president also met with officials during their visits to Egypt, or through participation in conferences and forums hosted by Egypt, which amounted to about 220 meetings. As he held 45 meetings with leaders and officials of African countries, including Ethiopia, Sudan, South Sudan, Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Mali, Burkina Faso, Somalia, Senegal, Comoros, Equatorial Guinea, Chad, Central Africa, Tunisia, Burundi, Rwanda, South Africa and others.

- In the second year of his rule, the president made 17 foreign visits, including two visits to Ethiopia and India to participate in the India-Africa Summit.

In the same year, Al-Sisi held meetings with officials during their visits to Egypt, or through participation in conferences and forums hosted by Egypt, which amounted to 175 meetings. He held 45 meetings with leaders and officials of African countries, including Eritrea, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Mozambique, Uganda, Gabon Niger, Mauritania, Nigeria, Togo, Ethiopia, Sudan, South Sudan, Algeria, Libya, Comoros, Equatorial Guinea, Chad, Burundi, South Africa, Morocco and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

- In the third year of his rule, the president made 22 foreign visits, including 10 visits to African countries. These visits included his participation in the African Summit in Kigali, the Arab-African Summit in Malabo, and the African Summit in Addis Ababa, as well as making bilateral visits to Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Chad, Gabon, Tanzania and Rwanda.

Al Sisi further visited Uganda to attend the summit of the Nile Basin countries. He also participated in the German-African Summit in July 2017.

- During the third year of the president's term, he held meetings with several officials during their visits to Egypt, or through participation in conferences and forums hosted by Egypt, which amounted to 155 meetings, including 25 meeting with African officials.

Finally, it is not a matter of several visits made by Al-Sisi to African countries, it is all about the completed tasks and the arranged steps, including the historical visit to Ethiopia and the president's historical statement in the Ethiopian Parliament and then the signing of an agreement on the Renaissance Dam in Khartoum.

Over the past three years, Egypt worked on restoring its African identity. Al-Sisi kept in mind the issues of the continent in most of his speeches in the world forums and conferences, particularly in the General Assembly of the United Nations. Besides, the ongoing attempts in light of the available capabilities, to enhance Egypt's openness to the African continent in various fields, and to uphold the principles of regional cooperation, particularly in the Nile Basin and the Horn of Africa.

 

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<![CDATA[ Moussa: We run for presidential elections to win ]]> Tue, 30 Jan 2018 15:21:02 EET http://en.theinternational.club/news/145 Chairperson of El Ghad Party Moussa Mostafa Moussa held a press conference after he submitted his candidacy application to the National Election Authority (NEA) on Monday, explaining his last-minute decision to run in the 2018 Presidential election.

Moussa claimed that his party is the only entity that conducted field studies to put plans, before announcing its participation in the elections. “People are right to question why we did not announce we were running earlier,” the candidate added.

After the withdrawal of other candidates, we questioned how the situation would be. We are working on behalf of Egypt and not on behalf of anyone else. I fully realize the problems of Egyptians, and we have out-of-the-box solutions that we are going to present as proposed programs,” Moussa stated.

He asserted that the party has presence in 26 out of the 27 governorates, with 450 bureaus. “We gathered 40,000 endorsement forms, which would be very difficult to review with the NEA, so we decided to depend on the 20 endorsements by parliament members we received,” Moussa explained.

The withdrawal of other potential candidates, Human Rights lawyer Khaled Ali and former Prime Minister Ahmed Shafik, as well as the ineligibility of former Chief of Staff Sami Anan drove the party to make the decision following initial reluctance.

Moussa stated that encouraging investments and resolving the problems of existing ones is the key to boosting exports and improving Egyptians’ economic status. He added that developing clear mechanisms to achieve different goals is more important than setting targets to be met in specific deadlines.

Moussa’s program is aligned with the social capitalism ideology he seeks to promote among youth, he said. He clarified that he would cooperate with “respectful” qualified parliament members to develop and accomplish different plans.

The candidate emphasized that the country should be ready to react to any potential harm resulting from the construction and reservoir filling of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD). He said that Egypt should also be cautious of Turkey’s actions in the region as it established a military base in the Sudanese island of Suakin.

My stance over the Muslim Brotherhood is the same as that of all Egyptians. No compromises, no retreat, no tolerance,” Moussa stipulated, asserting that his program is based on the inclusion of all social segments whose cooperation and solidarity is a must in the current intricate phase Egypt is going through.

Moussa's statement on the outlawed brotherhood refers to most of Egyptians' rejection of any reconciliation or pardoning of its leaders and members for its terrorist acts against civilians and security forces.

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<![CDATA[ Al-Jifri sets ways to confront atheism, extremism and MB's tricks ]]> Mon, 29 Jan 2018 13:47:10 EET http://en.theinternational.club/news/143 By: Marwa Al-wageeh

In a rich interview intellectually, religiously and politically, the Islamic preacher Habib Ali al-Jifri, Founder and General Director of Tabah Foundation for Islamic Studies, pointed out seven key axes related to the Egyptian and Arab affairs and the challenges facing the Islamic nation, including the threat of extremism and terrorism.

During his interview in "Manifesto" Radio program with Journalist Ahmed Al Tahry on El-Radio 9090, Al-Jifri has summed up his vision of the implications of the Arab Spring revolutions and the devastation they caused in the Arab countries. He also touched issues of confronting the danger of atheism, extremism and terrorism, as well as ways through which the Muslim Brotherhood (MB) seeks to preserve their interests, the fallacies surrounding the issue of Jerusalem and his vision of the Egyptian state in dealing with the Copts. The Islamic preacher has addressed all these details in this interview.

The first axis: Egypt's national armed forces

Al-Jifri said that Egypt is on the right path for restoring its prominent role in the region, although the crises it being experienced. He added that the region has suffered for decades from playing unsuitable roles by some figures and bodies.

"The existence of the Egyptian army guarantees stability and peace for all Arab countries, even if there are those who do not feel this issue. Whoever wants to destroy the Egyptian army or the Egyptian state, we will confront him because Egypt is our hope for restoring the region. Egypt is the nation's tent pillar which will remain erect even if wedges and ropes are cut off. However, if the pillar is broken, the tent is torn down," Al-Jifri said.

"The Egyptian army is the only force existing till now in the Arab region. It is the only army feared by the Zionist enemy, as it possesses a deterrent force to the enemies' attacks on our nation. But the problem we face now is the presence of some who do not realize the importance of this part, especially in Egypt," Al-Jifri added.

He stressed that he sees others who are praying to Allah to see Egypt like Syria and Iraq, inquiring "Is there a human ask Allah for such a thing?!". He clarified that these people did not live in a non-state, adding that those who lived in such country are realizing the importance of the Egyptian army.

"Our armies were multiple loyalties and sectarian what led to the destruction of our Arab countries. For example, in my country of Yemen, we see that a group of the army is fighting with Houthis and another faction is fighting with the legitimate government. They are fighting each other and the country is collapsing. Therefore, there is no longer a real sense of the state. I ask God that the Egyptians not to experience the stage of non-state. God willing, this stage will not take place as long as there is the Egyptian army," al-Jifri stated.

The Islamic preacher believes that the Muslim's youth, who participated in the Arab Spring, must be aware of the winner in this battle. He wondered is this considered an Arab spring or a Jewish spring after what we witnessed in Syria, Iraq, Libya and Yemen, and the problems facing Egypt and Tunisia? He affirmed that there were grievances and rights, pointed out those demonstrations may not bring down the regimes, they give justification to those who work to overthrow the regimes.

"What we experience now in our Arab world is a result of these protests. However, this does not mean that the regimes of Arab Spring's countries were right, but we must review ourselves well," Al-Jifri added.

The third axis: The issue of Jerusalem

Sheikh Al-Jifri reviewed recent issues about Jerusalem. He said that there are some scholars who have made comical statements and have no validity. Some say that the one who built Al-Aqsa Mosque is Abdul Malik Ibn Marwan, which is a terrible falsehood and manipulation of historical facts.

"There are those who said that Al-Aqsa mosque is not the mosque in which the holy Koran refered to. They said that this mosque is located in an area between Mecca and Taif called "Al-Jarana", citing a book called "Al-Waqidi," he said. Al-Jifri added that by reviewing the book, I found a manipulation of historical facts.

The fourth axis: MB Holocaust

During his interview, Al-Jifri reviewed what Egypt faced from the shameful war led by MB and what happened in the dissolution of Rabaa Square sit-in. He said that these incidents were systematic, as these people were manipulating people's feelings that they are live in a state of injustice, with the aim of clashing with the security forces to create a "holocaust". "Despite the evidence, this holocaust has been widely promoted abroad and this issue has not been clearly addressed so far," he clarified.

He denounced the blood that was shed in Rabaa, adding that some officers and soldiers did not shot on the protestors who began to use violence. "Despite the judicial decision and demands for ending the sit-in, as well as issuing several warnings to the protestors more than once, their response from the podium: "Stay to death", which indicates the intentions of MB's leaders aimed at leaving the youth to be killed to promote these incidents in the east and the west. They have managed professionally this case in the foreign media exploiting the youth's blood. Therefore, Egypt's youth should realize this incident and link it to the larger image of employing all this to destroy the existence of the state," al-Jifri said in his interview with Radio 9090.

 

The fifth axis: Fighting atheism and radical thought

Al-Jafri reviewed the misinterpretation of religion and pushing some to extremist trends, either to the terrorist groups on one hand, or to the trend of atheism that began to spread in the recent period. He said that extremism feeds contrast extremism, and we must differentiate between those whose extremism is coupled with incitement to murder, the destruction and fragmentation of society, and between those who have their own extremism.

The first type of extremism needs a rapid intervention force intellectually and spiritually. It also needs military intervention if necessary. While the second type is a group that has questions need to be understood and looking seriously. This type should not be concerned about its existence. We must not make atheists feel rejection or social exclusion. Instead, we must understand that many of those atheists had chosen this path due to their psychological state. We must distinguish between a man who has doubts or even an atheist, and a man who wants to insult the sanctities," al-Jafri added.

The sixth axis: Ways to confront extremism

To fight this new wave of radicalism, whether religious or ideological, Al-Jifri said Islam calls for thought. "We see the holy Koran full of verses calling the one to think. Islam always invites us to think and inquire. To combat this extremist ideology, we must confront a number of issues:

1- Carrying out awareness campaigns on the importance of the national, political and developmental thought, as well as conducting psychological treatment for the youth. There are many young people had lost their relatives and friends in some confrontations, such as the dismantling of Rabaa sit-in and other terrorist confrontations against the state. Those young people do not know that there was someone who carried a weapon to kill our soldiers and saw nothing other than the weapon of the state that was directed to their loved ones.

2- Intellectual confrontation through science and knowledge, as well as dismantling of complex issues.

3-Spreading scientific materials to brief the youth on the gravity of extremist ideas. Al-Jifri said that they in Taba Foundation had created a new page on social media outlets called "Sanad", through which they published many books and videos that were translated into 14 languages, to counter these extremist ideologies. He added that these materials should be taught in our schools, in addition to giving training courses for media professionals, university professors, and various groups that address the youth. "We must learn how to respond to their claims and to confront them intellectually," he clarified.

The seventh axis: The state and the Copts

Regarding his opinion on President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi's frequent visits to the cathedral to congratulate our Christian brothers on their holidays, Al-Jifri said that the Egyptian president fills any gap that could threaten the unity of the Egyptians. He praised the patriotic position of Pope Tawadros II after several attacks on Egypt's churches. Al-Jifri said that the Pope had called the foreign powers not to interfere in Egypt's internal affairs, as he said: " If they burn our churches we will pray with our Muslim neighbours in the Mosques". He added that president Al-Sisi visited the church to thank the Pope for his position. Al-Jifri affirmed that the western world was waiting for only one reference from the Church to intervene, as happened during the days of the British conquest of Egypt.

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<![CDATA[ Al Mesmari reveals the suspicious role of Qatar and Turkey in Libya ]]> Sun, 28 Jan 2018 14:47:04 EET http://en.theinternational.club/news/138 The International Club Research Center, Al-Dostor institution has organized a seminar with Brigadier General Ahmed Al Mesmari, spokesperson of the Libyan Armed Forces, in the presence of Dr. Mohamed Al-Baz, the CEO of Al-Dostor institution, Ahmed Al Tahry, the Editor in Chief of the center, and a number of the center's researchers.

In two hours, Al Mesmari reviewed the military situation in Libya, their efforts to confront terrorist organizations and the Egyptian-Libyan cooperation to restructure Libyan institutions, as well as Turkish and Qatari interventions in his country.

During the seminar, which addressed several important axes, Al Mesmari announced a set of statements for the first time. The most important of which are: "Smuggling processes on the Egyptian borders with Libya will be reduced by 65%", "The Libyan army managed to overcome the arms embargo imposed on Libya by recapturing all weapons of the militias", "We extend our thanks to Qatar for providingterrorists with the ammunition we recaptured from", and " Abdul Hakim Belhadj, the leader of al-Qaeda and the agent of Qatar and Turkey, handed over Libyan intelligence archives to Doha."

The first axis: Egyptian-Libyan cooperation

Al Mesmari said that Egypt is the protector of the Arab countries, pointing out that the Egyptian media is the first to open their doors to the Libyan issue and support the Libyan national army and the battle of dignity which began in 2014.

"The world did not pay attention to the Libyan issue except Egypt." During the first term of the rule of President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, the relationships between the two countries witnessed the top level of cooperation," Al Mesmari said.

He further added that the Muslim Brotherhood's (MB) talk that Egypt had benefited from its position supporting the Libyan crisis is just nonsense, stressing that MB, Al-Qaeda and ISIS are embracing the same thought. He indicated that the banned group has weapons, guns and tanks, in which they are using them to face their opponents.

"The Egyptian delegate in the Security Council and the Egyptian leaders during the international conferences are defending the Libyan crisis more than Libya's delegate to the Security Council of Fayez Al-Sarraj government," Al Mesmaripraising the Egyptian positions in the international conferences. He added that there is ongoing cooperation with Egypt around the clock, stressing that without the Egyptian army and its war against terrorists, the region would be destroyed.

The second axis: Egypt's role in supporting Libya during the term of President al-Sisi

During the seminar, Al Mesmari highlighted the Egyptian support during the first term of al-Sisi regime, stressing that al-Sisi represents not only Egypt, but also the entire Arab nation.

The Libyan Brigadier added that MB in Egypt was trying to neutralize the army and destroy it, which unfortunately happened in Libya. "Now, we are back again and we have become coherent," he said.

"The cohesion of the Libyan army stems from benefiting from Egyptian patriotism, the Egyptian role of Arab nationalism, and the role of Egypt in eradicating terrorism in the region. About 1200 km of the Egyptian-Libyan border is fully secured by the Egyptian and Libyan armies, which reflects the cooperation between the two parties in fighting against terrorism," he stated.

He pointed out that the spirit of the Egyptian army affected the Libyan army and became a working style for its personnel. He further added that most of the Libyan soldiers graduated from the Egyptian military colleges, and that the Libyan military history is connected to Egypt's army.

The spokesperson of the Libyan Armed Forces hailed Egypt's position supporting his country. He said that the Egyptian support is limited to two important reasons. The first of which is the social relationship between the tribes of Egypt and Libya. The second is Egypt's keenness on Libya's stability for reasons of national security. He added that this support was reflected in many things, the most important of which is backing Libyan army in the Security Council and international conferences and highlighting its role in combating terrorism. He said that the Libyan army was established in Egypt in the 1940s before declaring the Libyan state.

Third axis: Confront the smuggling on the Egyptian border

Al Mesmari said that the Libyan army managed during "Desert's Anger" military operation to inflict heavy losses on the Chadian gangs, which will reduce smuggling rate on the Egyptian borders by 65%.

After addressing the smuggling gangs who was led by a woman named Mariam Sorour, the Libyan army recaptured many of the gangs' weapons. These gangs established fuel stations and support centers in the desert adjacent to Libya, to support their militias, which in turn have worked in the past period to kidnap the transients of those areas from Jafra, Ajdabia and the border strip.

Regarding "Desert's Anger" operation, he said there are ongiong battles with the Chadian gangs who have taken Jafra and Ajdabiya as their base to control the gold mines in that region. He said that battalion 106 was attacked in Jarob area, which left six soldiers martyrs. Now, we impose our control over the area and the military bases in the south of Libya, he stated.

The fourth axis: The nature of the Turkish interventions in Libya

During the seminar, the Libyan army's spokesperson presented videos showing members of ISIS terrorist organization in Libya, who participated in battles against the Libyan army in Benina in 2011, receiving treatment in a Turkish hospital and praising Turkey's role in the crisis.

He commented on the video saying that Turkey poses a threat to the region. "Turkey is treating the wounded in its hospitals and  bringing the latest means of communication to Libya from several companies, such as vehicles that direct air jets and disrupt the communications, as well as bringing of explosive materials to the country up to 410 tonnes of explosives," Al Mesmari  stated.

Al Mesmari stressed that Libya has been facing terrorist gangs and militias. But now, it faces countries and intelligence agencies of countries offer all support to militias.

Regarding the visit of Turkish President RecepTayyipErdoğan to Sudan, Al Mesmari said that Qatari and Turkish planes transferred terrorists to Sudan to three training camps.The first camp is located in Selima area, 450 kilometers from Libya; the second in Odessa region on Chad borders, and the third in Moura mountain north of the previous areas.

He stressed that the Turkish presence in Africa comes within the framework of forming new region after what happened in Syria and the losses suffered by the terrorist organizations there. He added that Erdogan supports this perception concerdering himself as the leader of Muslims. Al Mesmari pointed out that secret meetings held between Turkey, Qatar and Sudan to divide their roles in Libya.

The fifth axis: The reasons for Turkey's intervention in Libya

Al Mesmari summed up the reasons for the Turkish intervention in Libya in three points:

1-The presence of four oil ports in Barqahregion, including Sidra and Barija.

2-The province of Barqah containing the second largest oil refining plant in Libya.

3- The eastern region has the source of the industrial river in Libya, which supplies the country with water."Those who control these important logistics areas can control all Libya's lands, because most of Libya's wealth lies in that region," he said.

The sixth axis: Qatar's interventions

Al Mesmari thanked Qatar for backing the terrorist groups. "We thank Qatar for providing the terrorists with the ammunition we recaptured from during the battles. He said that the Libyan army managed to overcome the arms embargo imposed on Libya by recapturing all weapons of the militias.

The leader in the Libyan army said that the Qatari-backed militias targeted cars and houses of the army's personnel and their families in cities of Derna and Benghazi, stressing that what Libya is facing now resembles a second world war, as in the past against Nazism.

He was surprised by the fact that no foreign country, led by America, issued any report saying that the Libyan army is fighting ISIS or denouncing the crimes of militias in Libya. "Qatar, Turkey and Sudan are aiming to control the Libyan east for the presence of oil and natural wealth," he stated.

During the seminar, he stated that Abdul Hakim Belhadj, the leader of al-Qaeda and the agent of Qatar and Turkey, handed over Libyan intelligence archives to Doha, adding that Belhadj did not explain the price he had received to do so.

He affirmed that Qatar had an armed group in Benghazi was working during 2012-2013 on assassinating leaders and officers of the army. However, he confirmed that the Libyan intelligence was able to know the names of Qatari officers who worked in Libya during that time. Regarding the Qatari role in Libya, Al Mesmari said that Qatar is an office of foreign intelligence that aims to destabilize the country.

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<![CDATA[ President El Sisi Meets al-Bashir in Addis Ababa ]]> Sun, 28 Jan 2018 14:34:59 EET http://en.theinternational.club/news/137 President Abdel Fattah El Sisi met with President of Sudan Omar al-Bashir, on Saturday in Addis Ababa.

In an open and brotherly meeting, President El Sisi underscored the steadfast and special characteristics of the Egyptian-Sudanese relations as well as the historic bonds between the two countries across all levels.

The President asserted that efforts will continue to strengthen cooperation between the two countries, and emphasized Egypt's keenness on continuing consultations and coordination with Sudan on various issues and dossiers, given the shared challenges imposed by the current regional situation.

President al-Bashir confirmed that the two peoples of the Nile Valley share a common history and a single fate, and stressed Sudan's commitment to furthering bilateral cooperation with Egypt at all levels.

The President of Sudan expressed his appreciation for Egypt's keenness on consulting with Sudan and affirmed that this demonstrates the longstanding, special and historic relations that bind the two countries. President al-Bashir stated that the challenges arising from the current regional situation necessitate that the two countries continue intensive coordination to contribute to realizing their joint interests.

At their meeting, the two Presidents discussed various aspects of the two countries' bilateral relations and ways to advance cooperation. They agreed to form a ministerial committee to address all bilateral issues and overcome all impediments they might encounter. President El Sisi and President al-Bashir emphasized the need to continue intensive coordination and consultations so as to consolidate cooperation in the coming period, reinvigorate relations across all aspects and realize a significant improvement that shall fulfill the aspirations of the two brotherly peoples.

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<![CDATA[ Story of nation … 32 achievements in 4 years ]]> Sun, 21 Jan 2018 10:50:34 EET http://en.theinternational.club/news/122 By: Ahmed Abdel Azim

Egypt's President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi witnessed last Wednesday the launch of the three-day conference "Story of nation", which concluded on Friday.

The conference reflects the president's keenness to activate community participation and enhance dialogue with citizens, especially the youth, as well as highlighting their role in supporting the government's efforts to implement its national projects. During the conference, El-Sisi sent dozens of messages to the Egyptians.

The following video shows the most important figures and statistics that the president explained in his speech to review the achievements made during his four-year tenure. These achievements are the following:

1- The volume of cash reserves reached to $ 37 billion compared to $ 16 billion in 2014.

2- The trade balance deficit decreased to $ 20 billion, while  Egypt's imports declined to $ 16 billion.

3- The unemployment rate decreased from 13.4% to 11.4%.4-

4- Creating job opportunities for 3.5 million citizens through the national projects.

5- Inflation rate fell from 35% to 25% in January and targeting 13% by the end of 2018.

6-The budget deficit receded to 10.9 percent in 2017 against GDP compared to 16.7 percent in 2013.

7-The total developmental investments amounted to EGP 14 billion in health, water and sewerage projects.

8-Building 25 thousand housing units for slum dwellers and 245 thousand units of social housing program.

9-Constructing of new roadways with a total length of 7000 kilometers.

10- Adding 25,000 megawatt of traditional and renewable energy to the national grid till June 2018, which is equivalent to about 12 times the capacity of the High Dam.

11-About EGP 70 billion were allocated for the establishment of an advanced power station and electricity control plants.

12-Petroleum discoveries have increased eight times to hit 36.8 billion cubic meters.

13- Establishing of the New Administrative Capital and other 13 cities in various governorates.

14-Reclaiming 1.5 million feddans within a plan to reclaim 4 million feddans.

15-Planting 100,000 greenhouses equivalent to the production of one million feddans.

16-Allocating 40,000 feddans for fish farming.

17-Million livestock are raised to increase livestock sector.

18-Allocating EGP 200 billion loans for the youth with an interest rate of 5%.

19-Establishing 11,000 national projects with 3 projects per day at a cost of EGP 2 trillion.

20- Planting additional million feddans by the end of 2018.

21-Digging the New Suez Canal and inaugurating it in one year at a cost of EGP 64 billion, as well as launching of Suez Canal Axis Development Project.

22-Establishing 41000 class and 5000 labs in different stages of education, as well as the launch of the Egyptian Knowledge Bank.

23-Establising nine new public and private universities and increasing the number of colleges to reach 450 college.

24-The number of university hospitals increased from 88 to 109 hospitals.

25-The number of scientific researches increased by 23%.

26- Pensions increased by 15% in 2017.

27- Beneficiaries of Takaful and Karama program reached to 2.5 million families, as well as increasing the minimum by 30%.

28- Increasing the allocation of provisions to 50 pounds per person against 21 pounds in 2014.

29-Water supply for villages covered 96% of Egypt's villages.

30-Building sanitation networks.

31-The percentage of villages with sanitation networks hit 16% of the villages after they were 10%.

32-Treating 1.4 million C virus patients and eliminating of waiting lists.

 

 

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<![CDATA[ Turkey-Qatar supported mullahs' regime, and considered 30 June a coup, Why? ]]> Wed, 17 Jan 2018 15:35:42 EET http://en.theinternational.club/news/119 By: Hamada El-kohli- Marwa Al-wageeh

Although the term of Arab Spring (Arab revolutions) has become one of the worst expressions in the minds of millions of Arabs, they did not hesitate to describe what is taking place in Iran as "Iranian Spring". Perhaps because Iran's demonstrators are carrying the same slogans of Arab revolutions, which are bread, freedom and human dignity. This stemmed from the suffering of the Iranian people from oppression tyranny, injustice, and discrimination, as well as the declining rates of growth and increase in unemployment and the poverty levels.

Perhaps the Arab peoples called the incidents in Iran as "Iranian Spring" due to their desire and hope to see Iran facing the same fate of Arab revolutions, especially after it played a vital role in destroying Syria and Yemen. While the tension is escalating inside Iran, the policies of the world countries towards these incidents were at the same pace, as the United States, Europe and the Security Council held a special session to discuss the Iranian scene. However, all these positions can be understood or placed within its framework, but what we have to discuss is the reactions of Turkey and Qatar towards the latest developments in Iran.

Turkey and Qatar from an Egyptian perspective

Turkey and Qatar did not stop their hostility toward the Egyptian state since 2011, particularly during the revolution of 25 January 2011 and the revolution of 30 June 2013. In addition, they supported extremist groups and harboring Egyptian terrorist elements.

In 2011, Egypt witnessed a revolutionary uprising against former President Hosni Mubarak. At the time, Turkish Prime Minister RecepTayyipErdoğan said that Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak should heed his people’s desire for change, piling pressure on Mubarak to end his 30-year rule in the face of mass protests. "All of us will die and will be questioned over what we left behind. As Muslims, we will be buried in a two cubic meter hole," he said.

Following the overthrow of Mubarak, the Turks began to implement their agenda in Egypt, supporting the Muslim Brotherhood (MB), which were classified as a terrorist group months before January 2011.. With the advent of MB to power, Turkey became a state imposing its sovereignty over Egypt for a year, in partnership with "Qatar", one of the smallest countries in the world. This continued until the rise of the revolution of 30 June 2013. Hence, after the outbreak of the revolution of 30 June 2013, it was natural for Erdogan to announce that what had happened in Egypt was a military coup and that Turkey did not respect those who did not respect the sovereignty of the people.

After supporting the revolution in 2011 and supporting MB in 2013, some expected that the Turkish view on Iranian protests will be very similar, but that superficial view and expectations have collapsed in front of interests and reveal. Instead of backing protesters, Turkey announced that there are external reasons behind the protests.

Qatar also followed the Turkish approach in dealing with the situation in Egypt since 2011 to now. According to Iranian reports, the Emir of Qatar, which called for supporting freedom and democracy in Egypt as a cover for backing terrorism and extremist groups, pledged to pay $ 2 billion urgently to quell the Iranian most violent demonstrations in years.

Al-Jazeera broadcasters also competed to pay less attention to the Iranian protests, as well as ignoring its coverage. It even broadcasted scenes of demonstrators against the mullahs' rule like they are supporting the regime in Iran.

After this realistic positions, there is an important question imposes itself. Why did Turkey and Qatar support the mullahs' regime and described the revolution of 30 June as a military coup?

Before going into the details of this question's answer, we must re-assert some notorious facts. These facts include that Turkey and Qatar are the two prominent sides in the international organization of MB in the world. Moreover, Turkey has clear ambitions in the Arab world, while Qatar has a historical animosity toward Egypt due to several reasons. As the leaders of the Gulf emirate feel their smallness with a state like Egypt. On the other hand, there are political reasons for Qatar's animosity, such as its policy related to Doha's proxy role to put pressure on Egypt and the implementation of policies whose main purpose was to secure the existence of the Zionist entity in the region.

Therefore, it is recognized that Ankara and Doha are implement policies away from principles and slogans they call for, including freedom, justice and human dignity. Otherwise, both countries were supposed to support Egypt's protesters in 2011 and in 2013, in addition to expressing at least sympathy with Iranian uprising if they are standing behind principles of freedom.

Why does Turkey support Iran's regime?

- Despite the unstable relations between the two countries, Turkey has supported Iran to ensure the stability of an influential neighboring country. In the light of deteriorating situations on all its borders, Ankara does not hope to open more doors of tension on its borders.

- One of the Turkish regime's interests not to witness revolutions or changes in regimes at its nearby borders. Over the last few years, the experience has proved that moving revolutions and protests across neighboring countries has become easy to happen. It may easily begin and end with the removal of a strong regime. As Ankara witnessed a similar wave of protests in May 2013 and has not yet recovered from the failed coup attempt last year.

- The collapse of the Iranian regime -under the current conditions- means a complete change in the map of influence in the Arab world. Then, the experience may be repeated with Turkey, which messes in the Arab world through several political systems and decisions.

- Iran and Turkey are cooperating politically in several files, what imposes the importance of continuing coordination between the Ankara and Tehran regimes. These files include dealing with the crisis in Qatar and the situation in Iraqi Kurdistan. Iranian official statements were issued confirming the possibility of carrying out a joint military operation in the region, which reflects the strength of both countries' coordination. The Syrian crisis and its implications for the Turkish security situation is also another file that imposes coordination between Turkey and Iran.

- The Turkish president is fulfilling his duty toward the Iranian government, which supported him against the failed coup d’etat in 2017. Once media announced news of a military coup's attempt against Erdogan's government, the Iranian Supreme Security Council met to discuss the latest developments in Turkey. The meeting was chaired by President Hassan Rowhani, who made a phone conversation with Erdogan, stressing his support to the Turkish President.

- During the last period, Turkey has not succeeded in attracting the attention of Saudi Arabia and forming a full strategic alliance. Although maintaining superficial relations with Riyadh, Erdogan's regime has developed its relations with the rivals of the KSA and the Gulf States.

- The collapse of the Iranian regime means direct external intervention in Iran and the emergence of strong internal Iranian powers oppressed religiously and culturally, which may be a warning of the repetation of the Syrian or Yemeni scenario on the Turkish borders.

- Ankara is aware that the collapse of Iran means a disruption of the trade balance between the two countries, which worth about $ 9 billion, while they seek to increase it to hit $ 30 billion.

- Turkey imports 10 billion cubic meters of natural gas from Iran a year, equivalent to one fifth of its annual needs.

Why does Qatar support Iran's regime?

- Qatar considers the Iranian regime as one of the most important pillars for its regime and the regional player that Qatar uses to face its Arab brothers.

- Doha also sees Iran as the only savior in the face of continued Arab boycott as a result of its policies supporting terrorism in the region.

- Iran is a major economic partner of Qatar, as Iranian investments in Qatar have increased during the last year. Moreover, Qatar announced it targets to increase the volume of trade from less than $ 2 billion to $ 5 billion. Iran's exports to Qatar have exceeded $ 100 million just over the last seven months.

- Qatar is no longer concealing its coordination with Iran concerning the crisis in Yemen and supporting the Houthis against legitimacy. It is no longer strange that Qatar's Al-Jazeera recently hosted Houthi's leaders attacking the Gulf States and insulting the Arab rulers.

- A large part of Qatar's oil production related to the massive North Gas Field. It is the largest gas field in the world with 50.97 trillion cubic meters of gas, with an area of 9,700 square kilometers, of which 6,000 are in Qatar's territorial waters and 3,700 in Iranian waters. Qatar produces 6,500 million cubic meters of gas per day of its share in this field and Iran produces 430 million cubic meters.

- The current rapprochement between Qatar and Iran was not the first. Qatar's former emir, Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, was the only ruler of the Gulf States to visit Tehran after the overthrow of the Shah regime. Qatar was the only member out of the UN Security Council's 15 members to vote against Resolution No.1696, which called on Iran to suspend its nuclear program. In 2007, Qatar sent an official invitation to Iranian President Ahmadinejad to attend the 28th Gulf Summit in Doha as guest of honor.

- In 2013, Doha resorted to Iranian forces to train the Qatari Coast Guard and the two countries conducted joint drills.

- In 2015, a security and military agreement was signed between Iran and Qatar under the name of "Combating terrorism and countering elements undermining security situations in the region ".

- In October 2015, the Iranian Border Guards' commander Brigadier Qassem Rezai, visited Doha and signed a cooperation agreement to "protect the joint borders" between the two countries. The agreement also included enhancing security cooperation for the first time between the Iranian Revolutionary Guards and the Qatari army.

- Qatar plays a major role in supporting pro-Iranian Lebanese Hezbollah, as well as the Bahrain-based Al-Wefaq Society, which its contacts with Doha has been discovered during the last period.

conclusion

Despite the apparent differences between Iran and Qatar as well as Iran and Turkey, the political circumstances and roles played by the three countries in the region have made the joint coordination among them is a must and even imperative, to secure their regimes and to ensure the continuation of foreign security and military policies as prescribed by those countries.

Thus, these regimes do not stand in favor of any uprising or protests to support their peoples, instead they are backing their interests and objectives. The regimes' plans showed a state of activeness after 2011 and then quickly extinguished in 2013, not only in Egypt but in the Middle East.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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<![CDATA[ Egypt's foreign reserves record the highest level in its history ]]> Mon, 08 Jan 2018 12:53:50 EET http://en.theinternational.club/news/98 By: Nour Adel

Egypt's foreign exchange reserves reached $ 37 billion at the end of December 2017. Supported by the third tranche of $ 2 billion of the IMF's $ 12 billion loan, the foreign reserves recorded the highest level in its history.

The highest level in its history

After hitting $ 37 billion, the net reserve of the Central Bank of Egypt (CBE) is the highest level in its history since the start of registring reserve data in the early nineties, as reserve rates exceeded the level recorded before the outbreak of the revolution of January 25, 2011, which amounted to $ 36 billion.

Egypt's foreign reserves are steadily increasing since Tarek Amer has been appointed as the Governor of CBE in October 2015, as reserves fell only twice in July 2016 and October 2016. The country's external debt increased by 41.6% year-on-year to hit $ 79 billion dollars at the end of fiscal year 2016-17, which ended on June 30.

Reasons of the rise in net foreign reserves

The increase in Egypt's foreign exchange reserves is due to the following:

- The increase in foreign reserves is due to the IMF's tranche received at the end of December.

- In December 2017, IMF approved the disbursement of the second tranche worth $1.25 billion of Egypt's $12 billion loan.

- Obtaining the tranche also helped the reserve not be affected by the payment of obligations to Turkey, Libya and the African Bank during the last period.

- Dollar liquidity improved after the recover enjoyed by some sectors like tourism and investment.

- Foreign currency inflows have improved after remittances from expatriate Egyptians rose, which recorded about $ 24 billion in 2017.

- Meanwhile, CBE's data showed that the contribution of the gold balance in foreign reserves declined by 1.1% (equivalent to $ 30 million) by the end of December 2017 on a monthly basis.

An official source at CBE said that Egypt has paid about $ 30 billion of obligations and debts to third parties during 2017.

Egypt’s foreign debt increased by $ 23.2 billion or 41.6%, during the fiscal year 2016-17.

The impact on exchange rate

The exchange rate has not been significantly affected and will stabilize at EGP17 this year.

On 3 November 2016, CBE decided to liberalize the exchange rate of the pound against the dollar, in accordance with supply and demand mechanisms, and decided to increase interest rates by 300 points.

The coming period

According to current indicators, the reserves are expected to increase in the coming period, as Egypt is seeking to offer international bonds of $ 4 billion during the coming period.

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<![CDATA[ Al-Jifrii summed up ways to confront extremism and terrorism ]]> Mon, 08 Jan 2018 11:01:07 EET http://en.theinternational.club/news/97 By: Ahmed Imbabi

The Islamic preacher Al-Habib Ali Al-Jifri, the Director General of the Tabah Foundation for Islamic Studies, has summed up ways of renewing religious discourse, and confronting radical and terrorist thought.

He said in a televised interview with BBC: "We should admit that there are problems in formulating the modern Islamic discourse."

He considered that the problem in formulating the modern Islamic discourse is that it has been exploited and employed by the extremist because of the absence of strategic vision of the governments in the region to identify the Islamic identity for the Arabic youth in the future and their attitude towards Modern Developments over the next 50 years.

Al-Jifri has criticized the lack for defining a vision of a strategic dimension for the youth such as what is happening with the future developments' visions, pointing out that such visions will benefit now if there is a political will that knows the importance of these visions for youth.

In order to create such religious discourse, Al- Jifri has identified a number of important aspects:

- The need to conduct a religious studies and debates to rebut the extremist ideas. He indicated that the governments must abandon the urgent and temporary dealing with crises, adding that these studies should stick to three main steps:

- First step – sectarian work: In this stage, the extremist thoughts must be eliminated, especially that there is real confusion that drives the youth to blow themselves up, kill and burn the others.

- Second step – doctrine issue: There are doctrine-related issues that stand before the development process and advancing the nations. These issues are subjecting to review and reconsideration in the Islamic law, because they are not expressly established and there is a need to review them deeply.

Third step – third phase: It is an in-depth phase, so that there must be among us who has philosophical depth in the formulation of the cognitive model to get out of this chaos. The chaos of political work, the chaos of economic work, and the chaos of international relations that require a global participation. That means we have a contribution to shaping the world's thinking, or we will continue to be consumers of what is intellectually produced and will not get out of from the vicious circle.

The relation between religion and regional crises:

Al-Jifri has responded to the attempts to what he called accusing religion of having political conflict in the region, saying that the calls for protesting against regimes claiming that they are injustice regimes are not true, because the matter is deeper than the injustice regimes. "If this matter continues, we will be part of a game of the action and reaction till our region goes under more than it is today.

"The state is being destroyed with the allegation of freedom and confronting regimes," he stated.

Al-Jifri added that he criticized many regimes in the region, stressing that freedom claims was a cause of the demolition of the state but the regimes do not demolish. Referring to the revolutions of what is known as the Arab Spring.

He stressed that he is against any call or sectarian discourse that is an umbrella for political struggle.

"What is happening in the region is political conflict and does not accept accusing religion or employing it in political conflict," he continued.

The Sunni-Shia conflict:

Al-Jifri considered that what is said about the conflict between the Sunnis and the Shiites is not true; assuring that what is happening now in our region is a political conflict.

"There are those who are afraid of repeating the model of other countries so they confront them and this is their right," he said.

"The talk about a conflict between the Sunni and Shiite is unacceptable. I am a Sunni man, but I refuses disbelieving Shiite, because they are our brothers. He stressed that there is a radical disagreement in the doctrinal aspects between the Sunnis and Shiites, but its place is the educational halls," Al-Jifri stated. He refuses to employ this dispute politically, because this problem has been exploited externally.

Al-Jifri said "We lack something that is called building a man, we have a ruined man, our governments are deficient and everyone bears the responsibility, the conflicting interests that have turned our region into a proxy land of war that can be achieved without the destruction of the region."

Supporting the Egyptian state:

Regarding his opinion on what is happening in Egypt, Al-Jifri announced he had supported the survival of the Egyptian state and the Egyptian army to maintain the survival of the Egyptian state.

He added that there is a difference between supporting the survival of the Egyptian state, and what is rumored that he is supporting President El-Sisi, stressing that he supports the survival of the army and the Egyptian state and does not care about what is said or promoted about him.

 

 

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<![CDATA[ dimensions of the Russian military base in Sudan ]]> Wed, 20 Dec 2017 11:20:55 EET http://en.theinternational.club/news/68 By: Ahmed Abdel Azim

Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir said he had discussed setting up a military base on the Red Sea with the president of Russia and his defense minister, adding that he had asked to provide his country with Russian defensive weapons.

Bashir responded to Sputnik's question (November 25, 2017) about whether he had discussed setting up a military base on the Red Sea with President Vladimir Putin, saying "yes, first with the Russian president and then with Defense Minister (Sergei Schweigau). He added this is not an agreement but an "understanding now, God willing."

"We want to develop military cooperation from an attaché to an adviser, and we have a program to fully modernize the armed forces because we have emerged from many problems and wars, so the armed forces need to organize and modernize, and all our weapons are Russian; therefore we need advisers in this area," he stated.

"When we use the equipment, of course, we need trainers and advisers. The Red Sea is a very important and very vital corridor, and for us it is an entrance to Sudan, vulnerability for Sudan and a security threat to our coast.It poses a risk to the country," al-Bashir said. We need strong protection so that they do not suffocate us. We must do anything for that."

Causes, objectives and impact

The above is the most prominent statements made by President Omar al-Bashir after his meeting with Putin ,on November 23, in the city of Sochi. This meeting raised a great debate on the feasibility and objectives of the establishment and impact of setting up a Russian (naval) base in Sudan. These objectives can be summarized in several points:

- President Omar al-Bashir is looking for protecting his country and providing the Sudanese army with the needed weapons through cooperating with Russia, due to his country's poor relations with the United States and the European Union.

- All of Sudanese weapons are from Russia. Therefore, for establishing Russian base in Sudanese territorial waters, Bashir wants to strengthen his army with advanced low-cost weapons from Russia.

- Omar al-Bashir is seeking to acquire sophisticated defensive weapons during the coming period to protect the country from any possible hostilities. So, he has already taken steps to acquire SU-30 and SU-35 fighter jets and the S-300 air defense system. Besides, Bashir himself announced that he asked for these weapons from Russia, during the meeting between him and Russian President Putin in November 2017.

- Sudan sees the Red Sea as a major gap may pose a threat to its national security, and thus wants to have a large military base capable of protecting this important strategic spot.

- On the other hand, Russia is seeking to set up a military base in Sudan to prove its actual presence in the region (the Middle East and the Arab region), after failing to convince other countries to set up military bases on its territory. Where the Russian's only military base in the region is located in Syria.

- Russia is also seeking to secure its liner trade in the Red Sea from any threats, especially as the US Navy is present in the Red Sea, and Russia will help to ease US influence in the region.

Russia will attempt to establish a naval base in the waters of the Mediterranean if it succeeded to set a military base in the Red Sea, to impose its power on the region.

- The importance of setting up Russian military base in Sudan lies in opening new relations with African countries. It could be the beginning of establishing other bases in African countries, like what happened under the Soviet Union, where it had two bases in Somalia and one in Ethiopia.

- Despite the positive results Russia seeks to gain through the establishment of a naval base in the territorial waters of Sudan, some Russian research centers (including Russian Institute for Strategic Studies) believe that the move will embarrass Russia, due to the warrant of arrest issued against al-Bashir by the International Criminal Court, on charges of crimes against humanity and war crimes. In addition, these centers believe that Russia is achieving one thing, which is the dispute with the great powers in this region.

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<![CDATA[ Egypt's stance on Jerusalem issue ]]> Mon, 18 Dec 2017 11:48:51 EET http://en.theinternational.club/news/63 By: Hamada Al-Kohly

Since US President Donald Trump announced, on the 6th of November, his decision to move the US Embassy in Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, there has been a state of monitoring for the Arab positions, especially the Egyptian stand on Jerusalem issue, as Egypt is the oldest and most influential in the Arab region and has a great history on the Palestinian issue.

However, although the media and political community are monitoring the Arab positions, it must be considered that the Egyptian stand on the Palestinian issue began before recognizing Jerusalem as Israel's capital. Egypt did not wait for the official approval by the US Administration, promoting the Egyptian stand to be the strongest against the US decision since its issuance, for the following reasons:

- Despite the distinguished relations between President Abdul Fattah El-Sisi and US President Donald Trump, since US elections, El-Sisi considered the file of the Palestinian issue is a red line that Egypt does not bargain for.

- Egypt rejected a US proposal to revive the peace process based on closing refugees' file and the establishment of a special mechanism for the city of Jerusalem does not correspond to Palestinian interests and the right of Palestinians in the holy city.

- Egypt did not respond to repeated American demands to pressure the Palestinians to accept direct negotiations with Israel without preconditions and without a specific timetable.

- As the world is watching and reading the decisions of President Donald Trump towards moving the US Embassy to Jerusalem, the United Nations witnessed a speech by President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi, in which he considered Jerusalem a condition for bringing calm to the region. "The settlement of the Palestinian issue must be based on established international norms and principles, establishing an independent Palestinian state along the 1967 borders with East Jerusalem as its capital, is a necessary precondition for the entire region's transit into a new phase of stability and development," El-Sisi said in his speech at UN General Assembly.

- During the Arab Islamic-American Summit in Riyadh, held in May, and in the presence of US President Donald Trump, the Egyptian president confirmed the Egyptian stand on the Palestinian issue. He pointed out that efforts exerted for fighting and uprooting terrorism could not be successful and be a tangible reality except through settling the Palestinian issue via a just, comprehensive and final solution that is based on the two-state principle and the relevant terms of reference of international legitimacy in a way that creates a  new reality for all the peoples of the region where they would enjoy prosperity and peace together with undermining all pretexts used by terrorists to justify their obnoxious crimes.

- Egypt frankly rejects what is being circulated on the details of the so-called "Deal of the Century" aimed at waiving agreed areas by the Palestinians. In return for this renunciation, Palestinians will take lands in Sinai parallel to the borders of Gaza and Sinai, and Egypt should get an equivalent area of Wadi Ferran , south of the Negev desert, from Israel. Although no state has officially declared the so-called deal of the century, Egypt refuses to talk about the idea of leaving its land.

- Before Trump's latest decision on Jerusalem, he contacted with Arab leaders, headed by President El-Sisi. But he was unable to get a response to the decision, but was met with an Egyptian request not to issue this decision for many considerations.

- Following Trump's decision, Egypt had already announced its stand, which was already known, in an official statement issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The statement was considered by observers a legal document in which Egypt enumerated the legal basis on which Palestinians and Arabs depend on, which states that Jerusalem is the capital of the Palestinian state.

- After this decision, Egypt called for holding an emergency meeting of the Security Council in response to Trump's position, and was co-sponsored by France, Britain, Italy, Sweden, Uruguay, Bolivia and Senegal.

- In his speech at the Security Council, the representative of Egypt stated that Cairo rejected the American decision and any consequences it entails. He stated that such unilateral decisions are contrary to international legitimacy. The statement included Security Council's resolutions regarding Jerusalem and its status as a city under occupation.

- In his speech at the emergency meeting of the Council of the League of Arab States, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry held the international community and the United Nations responsible for their inability to enforce international legitimacy in a case of more than seven decades. His speech aslo included a report on Security Council's resolutions, which clearly condemns all measures aimed at changing the demographic and geographical situation of the 1967 occupied Palestinian territories, including East Jerusalem.

- On the 8th of December, the Grand Imam of Al-Azhar rejected the meeting with US Vice President Mike Bens during his visit to Egypt. Sheikh Al-Azhar said the decision to transfer the US embassy unfair and unjust about Jerusalem, adding that Al-Azharcan not sit with those who falsify history and take away the rights of peoples and abuse their sanctities.

- on the 9th of December, Pope Tawadros, Pope of Alexandria, also announced his decision to reject US Vice President Mike Bens in response to Washington's recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel.

- Although the stance of both the Grand Sheikh of Al-Azhar and the Pope of Alexandria can not be considered an official stand of the Egyptian state, but this does not mean that both stances were issued away from the state.

- The stance of the Grand Imam and the Pope understood by the American administration as desired by the Egyptian state, where Al-Azhar and the Church expressed their unity regarding Jerusalem as the capital of the Palestinian state.

- On December 12, the foreign media reported the emergency meeting's details, held by the Council of Senior Scholars in Egypt on Jerusalem. The council said in a statement that the decision as arrogant and reckless, will not change the reality that Jerusalem is Arab, Islamic and Palestinian. The council also warned about attempts to normalize relations with the Zionist entity before its withdrawal from the occupied Arab territories and the establishment of an independent Palestinian state with Jerusalem as its capital.

Al-Azhar announced an international conference will be held in 17-18 January, in cooperation with the Muslim Council of Elders, to drum up condemnation against the US move.

- During his speech at the Organization of Islamic Cooperation’s Istanbul summit, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry delivered a speech on behalf of Egypt's President, in which he announced Egypt's strategy to settle the crisis.

Shoukry sent clear messages, during the summit, to the American Vice President before his visit to Egypt. These messages included that peace can not be based on the continuation of the historical injustice suffered by the Palestinian people. Egypt rejects dealing with Jerusalem outside the scope of international legitimacy. while the prominent message emphasized that the Egyptian people will not tolerate the current situation of Jerusalem and Palestinians.

- Egypt submitted a draft resolution to the UN Security Council, demanding the cancellation of any legal effect of the American decision to move the US embassy to Jerusalem.

On the media level, the Egyptian media is the more severe against the American decision and the Israeli violations. The Egyptian media did not resort to host Israeli analysts under the slogan of opinion and dissident opinion. Furthermore, the National Information Authority in Egypt launched a unified broadcast in support of Jerusalem.

Movements of the last two years

Egypt's history on the Palestinian issue is long, but over the last two years, the Egyptian administration has intensified its efforts to push the peace process foreward. In May 2016, President Abd al-Fattah El-Sisi launched, from Assiut Governorate, an initiative to revive peace between the Palestinians and the Israelis. The initiative was met by a wide international welcome as well as by the Palestinian and Israeli sides.

- Following this announcement, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry visited Ramallah and met President Mahmoud Abbas, delivering a verbal message from President Abdel Fattah Al Sisi.

- In June 2016, Shoukry also headed to Tel Aviv, in a surprise visit aimed at pushing the peace process forward.

- In August, Sameh Shoukry met with a senior US delegation headed by Jared Kouchner, the top advisor of the American president, as part of his tour in several countries in the region, to discuss ways to support the peace process and resume negotiations between the Palestinians and Israelis.

- On October 12, at a historic moment in Cairo, the Palestinian Fatah and Hamas movements signed a national reconciliation agreement and ended the division under Egyptian auspices, in a step that ended the justifications of the international community to avoid its role in pushing the peace process forward.

- In September, President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi held a meeting with Israeli Prime Minister, Benjamin Netanyahu, in New York, on the sidelines of the United Nations General Assembly, to discuss developments of peace process.

- President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi held several meetings with the President of the Palestinian Authority, as he puts the Palestinian issue on the top of the agenda of his talks with his counterparts of world leaders.

 

 

 

 

 

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<![CDATA[ The map of terrorist organizations in Africa ]]> Thu, 23 Nov 2017 14:45:57 EET http://en.theinternational.club/news/28 By: Ahmed Imbabi

The African arena is no longer far from the cycles of power struggle in the Middle East, and it has become an essential part of the international conflict's means in the region. So that, many of the international powers are strongly seeking to impose their influence on the continent, and the effects of those countries' actions, including conflicts, crises and internal tensions, are evident in the continent.

During the last two decades, the trans-border terrorist organizations have not been known in Africa, but the situation has changed in recent years, and many of those organizations, that are strongly deployed in the Middle East, extended to the African countries. Hence, the importance of monitoring the most prominent terrorist and jihadist groups, taken from African countries as a safe haven for their presence and movements, became urgent.

Major organizations

What is experienced by African arena of  the spread of terrorist organizations and powers can not be separated from the beginning of  Islamic groups' proliferation and the terrorist incidents that they have claimed, especially in Egypt since the sixties of the last century.

The first seed of these organizations was planted in Egypt, last century, after the incidents took place in the Egyptian arena following the establishment of Jihad movement and Islamic Group, which inspired its intellectual argument from the approach of Muslim Brotherhood (MB(.

These organizations, which spread strongly in the sixties and seventies of the last century, can not be separated from those organizations existing on the Egyptian arena, especially in Sinai, and the terrorist incidents which they claimed.

The terrorist groups in the African continent are very similar and varied in their militias and movements, but the deep-rooted ideological and dynamic thought of these organizations confirms that they belong to five major organizations:

- Muslim Brotherhood

MB organization can not be marginalized or ignored in recent violent and terrorist attacks, especially in a country like Egypt. The organization went beyond all the lines after the overthrow of Mohamed Morsi in June 30 Revolution and chose the path of violence and terrorism in Sinai and in several governerates.

Carrying out these operations, the organization relies on specific terrorist cells, armed movements, such as the Hasm Movement and Hasm Vanguards organization in Egypt and Lybia, as well as the jihadist cells of the organization in a number of North African countries and the region.

The role of Brotherhood's special armed organization, founded by its founder Hassan al-Banna, can not be ignored at the beginning of the organization's work in committing a number of assassinations of political symbols.

- Salafist jihadism

This organization extends in the Arab Maghreb countries, specifically in Algeria and Tunisia, and also exists strongly in Sudan. The organization's militants are spread in several regions of West Africa such as Mali and Mauritania as well.

This organization consists of a group of movements and organizations that adopt the same extremist ideology in the application of religion and calls for jihad according to thoughts of Sayyid Qutb.

Although the roots of this organization dates back to the sixties through the Islamic Jihad group in Egypt, but it managed to re-apply its thoughts freely in the era of MB during the rule of Morsi.

 - Al Qaeda;

Al-Qaeda and its affiliates such as al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb and its branches such as Tawhid and Jihad Movement in West Africa, Ansar al-Din group and Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen in Somalia, which extend to neighboring countries such as Djibouti, Kenya and Eritrea.

Al-Qaeda's ideology is no different from that of Salafist jihadism. Moreover, its presence in Africa, especially in north and west Africa, increased after the strength of the organization declined, especially after the killing of Osama bin Laden. The organization's leaderships were dispersed, where some of them returned to their original homeland in Africa and the Maghreb.

The organization is located in the northern regions of Algeria and in the desert areas of southern Algeria, northern Mali, eastern Mauritania and western Niger. Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb represents the state of transition from a local terrorist group to a trans-border organization.

- DAESH

organization, or the so-called Islamic state organization, is the most bloody and widespread organization in the world in recent years after the decline and disappearance of al-Qaeda.

The organization's first appearance was in Iraq and Syria, and is currently spreading in Libya. Furthermore, there are some of DAESH's militants in the countries of central and western Africa, such as Mali, Somalia and some Sahel-Saharan countries.

Many terrorist groups have pledged allegiance to DAESH, such as Bait al-Maqdis and Ansar al-Sharia in Libya as well as the Movement of the Sons of the Sahara.

- Boko Haram

One of the most deadly terrorist organizations in Africa, which are located mainly in Nigeria and extended to neighboring countries.

This organization has gone through different stages in which it has changed its organizational loyalty. It was founded in 2002 by Muhammad Youssef as a Salafist jihadist organization named "Group of the People of Sunnah for Preaching and Jihad", which changed its name after pledging allegiance to DAESH to became Wilayat Gharb Africa.

 

Map of the proliferation of terrorist organizations

According to the movements of the extremism organizations in Africa, they are existing in about 20 African countries, especially in the north, west and east of the continent. The most prominent of these countries are Egypt, Libya, Nigeria, Mali, Senegal, Benin, Chad, Niger, Cameroon, Sudan, Somalia, Mauritania, Eritrea, Guinea, Uganda, Kenya, Tunisia, and Algeria, as well as Morocco.

To illustrate the map of these organizations and their locations in the continent, we will review the most prominent movements and groups in the African countries most affected by terrorism.

1- Egypt

Egypt is the most African country affected by terrorism in recent years. Egypt has often experienced waves of terrorism and terrorist organizations over the last decades, especially after the formation of Al Jemaah Al Islamiyah (Islamic group) and Jihad group in the sixties.

From this perspective, the intellectual extension of some of these groups comes to target the security of the Egyptian state. The most prominent of these organizations are the following:

- Wilayat Sinai ( Ansar Bait al-Maqdis)

The most dangerous of the terrorist organizations located in Sinai, which changed its name after pledging allegiance to ISIS in November 2014. According to the former leader in Al Jemaah Al Islamiyah Dr. Najeh Ibrahim, Ansar Bait al-Maqdis organization is the Egyptian branch of an organization from Gaza.

It was an extension of an Egyptian group that originated in 2000, which was called "Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad". It was founded by a dentist named Khalid Masa'id with a group of militants from North Sinai to target Israeli tourism. They also claimed responsibility of  Taba and Dahab bombings.

Following the January 25 revolution, the leaders of this organization escaped from Egyptian prisons after breaking into prisons with other militants of a terrorist group called "Jund Allah".  After that, Sinai has become the home of terrorist organizations and the flow of large quantities of weapons. Many members of the old extremism groups across Egypt have joined Wilayat Sinai terrorist organization.

The leaders of Ansar Bait al-Maqdis wanted to turn Sinai into an armed Islamic emirate. However, the process of inflowing and arming the terrorists in Sinai did not stop until the June 30 revolution, after removing Muslim Brotherhood, which provided those militants with safe haven to move and settle. This led to the intervention of the Egyptian armed forces to tighten control of the border and close and destroy the tunnels with the Gaza Strip.

Wilayat Sinai has claimed a number of major terrorist attacks in recent years, including the massacre of soldiers of the armed forces in Rafah, bombing of the gas line with Israel more than once, and downing of the Russian plane that crashed in Sinai in October 2015.

- Soldiers of Egypt (Ajnad Misr( 

A jihadi organization founded in 2013, specifically after deposing Mohamed Morsi and the rule of MB. The terrorist organization has claimed a number of terrorist attacks against the security forces in Cairo and other cities and provinces, where it was focusing its operations in residential areas away from Sinai. It was founded by the Jihadist Hamam Mohamed Attia, who was killed in confrontation with the Egyptian police, in April 2015, in Giza.

- Al-Mourabitoun Group

In July, a voice recording attributed to former Egyptian army officer Hisham Ali Ashmawi, in which he announced the establishment of Al-Mourabitoun Group in Egypt. He announced declared his allegiance to Al-Qaeda and its leader Ayman al-Zawahri.

This organization is one of the most dangerous organizations that are still existing in the Egyptian arena. Moreover, the organization's last terrorist operations took place in Oasis area, in Giza, in mid-October 2017. This operation left 16 of the Egyptian police martyred.

- The cells of MB

The MB's armed cells also emerged after deposing their rule in Egypt, and include well-trained militants, those who traveled to Syria and the areas of fighting. These cells were supervised by a member of the Guidance Office, Muhammad Kamal, who was killed in October 2016.

These cells aim to exhaust and confuse the Egyptian state, through a series of operations targeting government institutions and disrupting public life and facilities.

- Hasm movement

It is a political movement that emerged in Egypt in January 2014. According to its first statement, it aims to restore the spirit of the revolution of 25 January 2011 and implement its objectives. The terrorist group has claimed responsibility of a number of terrorist operations across Egypt.

- Hasm Vanguards Organization

A new terrorist organization was founded by the end of October 2017. The National Security in Egypt announced its forces arrested armed group belonging to MB called "Hasm Vanguards", where 12 terrorists were arrested and some weapons and ammunition were seized. The members of the cell admitted that they joined what so-called "Hasm Vanguards" and trained to target the state's institutions.

 -  jihadist Salafism - Jihad and Tawheed - supporters of jihad

The jihadist Salafism in Sinai is an integral part of the violent takfiri scene in the post-June 30, 2013 period. Most members of these groups are ideologically or organizationally linked to Palestinian jihadist groups.

- Ansar al Sharia in Egypt

This organization was founded in early 2014. Following the Egyptian revolution in 2011, many imprisoned members of Egypt's Jihadist movements were released from prison, and there was an easing of restraints on free speech. This allowed radical followers of Salafist Jihadism to resume their activities, garner support and recruit followers. Amongst those released from prison was Ahmad Ashoush, who founded Ansar al-Sharia in November 2012. It is known that this organization has origins in several other countries, including Tunisia, Libya, Morocco and Yemen.

These battalions represent jihadi groups that entered prisons as a result of their use of violence. In March 2014, the group announced its formation and claimed responsibility for a series of shootings of Egyptian security personnel.

2- Libya

Many terrorist and armed groups have settled in Libya after the collapse of the Libyan state following the fall of Gaddafi regime. These organizations are still a major cause of the Libyan crisis. The most prominent of these organizations are the following:

- Ansar al-Sharia in Benghazi

One of the most powerful armed groups in Libya. The al-Qaeda linked Ansar al-Sharia controls large parts of Benghazi and Derna in eastern Libya.

The Libyan government has accused it of carrying out a number of assassinations of civilians, officials and military personnel. The United States has accused it of attacking the US consulate in Benghazi in 2012, which killed the US ambassador and four American citizens.

- The Shura Council of Mujahideen in Derna

A coalition of Islamist militias that advocate the implementation of Sharia law within Derna, Libya. At its founding, the council included Ansar al-Shari'a militia in Darnah, which has been classified as a terrorist group by the United Nations Security Council since 20 November 2014, Jaysh al-Islam militia and Abu Salim Martyrs militia.

The terrorist organization was founded by former Libyan Islamic Fighting Group member Salim Derby on 12 December 2014.  It is known for its open opposition to Libyan armed forces and DAESH. The organization also fought battles against DAESH after the killing senior Shura Council leader Nasser Akr by DAESH gunmen, in June 2015. The group responded by declaring a Jihad against DAESH, in which Salim Derby was killed.

- DAESH

The presence of DAESH militias in Libya began in July 2004 in Darna, and extended in three major strongholds in Libyan territory. In 2012, one of the Libyan armed militias in Syria faounded a group called "  Battar Brigade fighters. In 2014, more than 300 fighters of this militia returned to Libya at Darnah, in which they formed a new faction called the Islamic Youth Shura Council, which began recruiting militants from other local groups.

The faction continued to expand until a delegation that had been dispatched by the group's leadership arrived in Libya, in September 2014. The representatives included Abu Nabil al Anbari, a senior aide to Abubakar al-Baghdadi. On 5 October 2014, the Islamic Youth Shura Council-aligned militant factions came together and pledged allegiance to ISIS.

On 13 November 2014, al-Baghdadi released an audio recording in which he accepted pledges of allegiance from supporters in five countries, including Libya, and announced the expansion of his group to those territories. He went on to announce the creation of three "branches" (wilayah) in Libya, including Wilayah al-Fizan, Wilayah al-Barqah, and Wilayah al-Tarabulus.

The danger of this organization extends to the neighboring countries, including Egypt, where they are tried to enter Egyptian territory across the western border to carry out terrorist attacks in different areas.

- The Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG)

Libya is the place of LIFG, which is closest to be a military wing of the MB organization, and includes elements and militias from other organizations in Libya such as al-Qaeda.

- Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb

The organization is an extension of al-Qaeda in the Maghreb countries, which originated from Salafi Jihadism in Algeria. It is located in a number of Libyan regions and includes militants of al-Qaeda returning from jihad after the killing of Osama bin Laden.

3- Tunisia

There are a number of armed terrorist groups and movements on the Tunisian territory, which emerged after jasmine revolution in Tunisia in 2011. These organizations, which still have a presence on Tunisian territory, are the following:

- Okba Ibn Nafaa Brigade

The Tunisian branch of al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb. Its fighters were said to be loyal to the Ansar al-Sharia organization, which is headed by Abu Ayyad Al Tounisy, and is active in the areas of Kasserine. Since the end of 2012, the movement has been based in Jabal El Shaanbi, in Kasserine region, on the border between Tunisia and Algeria. The group planned to establish the "first Islamic emirate" in North Africa in Tunisia after the Jasmine Revolution 2011.

In May, al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb announced the killing of the commander of militia "Abu Sufian Al Soufy", in Sidi Bouzid military operation in Tunis.

- Ansar al-Sharia in Tunisia

Thoughts of this terrorist group are similar to that of jihadist Salafism and MB in Egypt. Most of its militants were fighting with al-Qaeda in Afghanistan and tried a lot to form jihadist cells aimed at returning to Tunisia for jihad. But the first real appearance of this group was after the Jasmine revolution in 2011. Ansar al-Sharia held a national conference at Kairouan in 2012 in which Abu Ayadh aka ben Hassine -their leader- called for the Islamization of Tunisia's media, education, tourism and commercial sectors, and the establishment of an Islamic trade union to confront the secular Tunisian General Labour Union.

There was close ties between the Tunisian Ennahda Movement (MB in Tunisia) and Ansar al-Sharia after the jasmine revolution. But soon, the two parts differed to the extent that prompted Ennahda Movement's government in 2013 to classify Ansar al-Sharia as a terrorist organization.

- Youth of Tawheed

After the Tunisian government's decision to classify Ansar al-Sharia in Tunisia as a terrorist organization, Tunisia took stern measures against the group's activities. Meanwhile, another Jihadi group emerged called "Youth of Tawheed", which has media outlets on social networking sites. Many observers have said that "Youth of Tawheed" is the new face of "Ansar al-Sharia".

- Soldiers of the caliph (caliphate fighters)

It is a terrorist group founded in early of 2015. The organization pledged allegiance to DAESH.

- Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb

The organization is an extension of al-Qaeda in the Maghreb countries, which originated from Salafi Jihadism in Algeria. It is located in a number of Tunisian areas and includes militants of al-Qaeda returning from jihad after the killing of Osama bin Laden.

4- Algeria

Most of the organizations that exist in Algeria belong to al-Qaeda. These organizations, which still have a presence on Algerian territory, are the following.

- Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb

It is the most prominent  jihadist organization in Algeria. The roots of the jihadist groups in Algeria date back to the 1990s when the Emir of al-Qaeda in the Maghreb, Abdelmalek Droudkal, nicknamed "Abu Musab Abdel Wadud", fighted against Algerian authorities, within the ranks of Armed Islamic Group and then the Salafist Group for Preaching.

Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb is located in the northern regions of Algeria and in the desert areas of southern Algeria, northern Mali, eastern Mauritania and western Niger. It represents the state of transition from the local terrorist group to the trans-border organization.

- Jund al-Khalafah- DAESH

Algeria's Jund al-Khalafah group has imposed its name on the international media scene after it announced the kidnapping of a French citizen in September 2014. That came after the militant group announced its pledge to DAESH.

This group was established after a meeting of the Shura Council of the center in al-Huda brigade and some of was affiliated with Al-Qaeda in Maghreb, where as it was agreed to establish a Jund al khalafa in the territory of Algeria, led by Khalid Abi Suleiman, and they pledge allegiance to al-Bughdady.

The group said that the founders of the new organization had decided to split from the al-Qaeda and al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, and declared innocence of al-Qaeda approach, to declare the allegiance of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi.  The group is led by Quri Abdul Malik, a 37-year-old former member of the Huda Brigade, from Boumerdes, northern Algeria.

-Salafi Jihadism

This trend is forked and has a large presence in Algeria for years, and although his ideas are militant, he does not go to violence.

The Salafi movement began in the early 1990s with the establishment of the Islamic Salvation Front, but it quickly broke out. While some of them adopted political action under the banner of the Front, some took up the armed action, the so-called Salafi jihadists.

In recent years, the Algerian community has witnessed the penetration of the Salafist movement and its spread, and because of its strength, the state has taken upon itself the process of containing it, for fear of slippage and entering the tunnel of extremism and fanaticism.

Abdelmalek Ramdani, the spiritual leader of the Salafist movement, who is the author of a fatwa forbidding demonstrations, issued after the outbreak of the Arab revolutions, called on Muslims to ignore calls for change, saying that "democracy is against Islam."

Sudan

Although the Sudan does not witness violent confrontations with the terrorist organizations, there are many terrorist organizations and groups that find refuge in the Sudanese territory as a haven for their ideas and movements, especially since Al Qaeda leaders Ayman al-Zawahiri and Osama bin Laden were residing in Sudan during the 1990s.

Among these groups:

The Salafi Jihadists

There were no Salafist jihadists in Sudan such as those in Egypt and Algeria, although a large number of Sudanese who are follow the Muslim Brotherhood went to Afghanistan, but they went back and did not join the bin Laden group.

The Salafi jihadist movement in Sudan is divided into five major sections, most of which are rejected to be described as jihadist streams, even though they offer a distinctly ideological jihadist content. They reject the national state, democracy and human rights, and see the only way to seize power is armed power.

These sections are the Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami, the one-nation movement, the sit-in group in the book and the Sunnah, the Sheikh Mu'assid al-Sidira, the jihadist movement, and the supporters of the Nasra Front.

- The jihadist advances in the land of the Nile

In 2013, al-Qaeda in Sudan announced the birth of its affiliate at the University of Khartoum, where the middle class in Khartoum addressed al-Qaeda under the name of the "Salafi jihadi in the land of the two Niles".

The jihadist organization appeared openly in Sudan with the start of protest demonstrations condemning the abuse of the Prophet at the time, some of them took part in the demonstrations and attacked the embassies of Germany and the United States in Khartoum and members of the group appeared wearing a black robe written on it (no god but Allah)

- DAESH

In Sudan, DAESH has no organizational presence but intellectual. In August 2015 the Salafist jihadist movement in Sudan announced that the security authorities arrested "Sheikh Mu'assid al-Sudairah," one of the most prominent Salafist jihadi leaders, in an attempt by the government to stop the increasing number of Sudanese students enrolled in DAESH.

Al-Sudairah is one of the most prominent supporters of DAESH in Sudan, along with the general coordinator of the one-nation movement, Dr. Muhammad Ali al-Jazuli. He owns an institute north of Khartoum, where he teaches his students modern science, but the Sudanese authorities consider that this institute is one of the incubators of the Salafi- And that it is a point to gather those who wish to join the Salafist jihadist, such as the Mujahideen Youth Movement in Somalia and the Ansar al-Din group in Mali, and finally DAESH.

6- Somalia

The most African countries affected by the threat of terrorist groups, where it suffered for years from the of internal war implications and violence, even the Islamic organizations succeeded to reach the rule there

The most prominent movements in Somalia are:

- AL Shabab:

The Mujahideen Youth Movemen (Al-shabab) is an armed Somali group, founded in early 2004. It was the military arm of the Union of Islamic Courts (ICU), which was defeated by the Somali government's interim forces but broke away from the courts after joining the so-called Somali opposition coalition.

The movement is a Salafist Islamic movement whose goal is to establish a state based on shari'a and has been linked to al-Qaeda through the mediation of some officials of the cells of international organization in East Africa.

In September 2014, Ahmed Omar Abu Ubaida became the head of Al-Shabab Movement after the death of its former leader Ahmed Abdi, "Goodan," who was killed in a US air strike. In the same year, the young people renewed their loyalty to Ayman al-Zawahiri, the leader of al-Qaeda.

In October 2015, Abdul Qadir Mu'men, a leader of the movement annonced his allegiance to the DAESH. The movement has focused its attacks on the Somali government and neighboring countries, especially Kenya and Ethiopia, the countries that have contributed to the military campaign against it. Since 2007, 85% of the movement's attacks within Somali territory, compared to 12% in Kenya.

Between 2011 and 2013, the Gudan-led movement posed a threat to Kenya more than once, especially after the Kenyan army took part in the occupation of parts of Somalia

- DAESH

In the second half of 2015, DAESH sought to expand its control and spread in Somalia by establishing a branch in what its fighters call a "small emirate" in Somalia.

Although DAESH existence in Somalia is difficult to achieve, a cause of the strong presence of al Shabaab, which threatened anyone joining Isis, it succeeded in recruiting fighters after the announcement of Abdul Qadir Momen joining with a group of at least 20 of his followers with him to DAESH.

Indeed, DAESH was able to establish a new front in Somalia as the "East African Front". This front is one of the most volatile fronts in Somalia during the recent period because of the multiplicity of fighting fronts of Al-Shabab and the large number of its fighters came back from Syria and Iraq, where they fought alongside from DAESH.

7- Kenya:

Kenya faced the threat of terrorism by the Mujahideen Youth Movement, which has been fighting with it since 2011, these movements include,

- Migration "Organization of Muslim Youth"

A Kenyan religious group seen as a close ally of the Somali Mujahideen Youth Movement, after pledging alligiance to it and al-Qaeda. It is taking a mosque in the capital, Nairobi as a headquarter and seeking wide-ranging attacks in Kenya and elsewhere in eastern Africa.

the movement Was founded in 2008 and is working to mobilize a network of followers and advocates in Kenya. as well, it is recruiting elements and raising funds and supporting for the jihadist movements in favor of the youth movement in Kenya.

The Somali youth movement targets Kenya in a large scale, especially after Kenya decided in 2011 to intervene militarily in Somalia in an attempt to eliminate the AL-Shabab movement and since this time the movement retaliations against Kenya.

- The East African Front "DAESH"

The front formed in Somalia by the group Abdelkader Moamen named the "East African Front", which follows the organization of DAESH, and has an extension in Kenya.

In September 2016, DAESH  claimed responsibility of the first attack in Kenya when three supporters of the organization carried out an attack targeting a police station in the city of Mombasa.

8- Nigeria

Violence and terrorism have increased in Nigeria in recent years, especially after the operations and confrontations of Boko Haram in northern Nigeria, and Nigeria has become one of the most dangerous terrorist strongholds on the continent.

Boko Haram

The movement was founded in Yobe, northeastern Nigeria, in 2002 by the young preacher Muhammad Yousuf, who was executed by the Nigerian police on 30 July 2009 and called the Ahlu Sunnah Group for Preaching and Jihad. Boko Haram  means in Hussa Language Prohibition of Western Education.

The founder of the movement was so impressed with al-Qaeda that he was given his place in the Yuba state at the beginning of the founding of the movement "Afghanistan", and his movement was initially called "the Taliban of Nigeria".

The founder of the movement, Muhammad Yusuf, was a member of the Brotherhood in Nigeria, led by Ibrahim al-Zaqzaki, in the mid-1980s, but he rejected the tendency of its leader to the Iranian Shi'ism, which spread in 1994. He joined a radical group called the "remove of fad and Establishment of the Sunnah Group." His group in 2002.

The first armed operations of this movement were in 2003 after the group had spread in the states of northern Nigeria, eastern and western, and extended its threat to neighboring countries after that, and launched operations in Niger, Chad and Cameroon.

In 2009, Mohammed Yousuf and his movement demonstrated war against the Nigerian state through what he called "the open letter to the men of the federal government", threatening the state, and set it forty days to begin to repair the relationship between them and his movement, otherwise the jihad will begin on a wider scale. The clash developed to the point where police besieged Ibn Taymiyyah mosque where he was staying and ended his death at the time.

The movement responded with a series of acts of revenge, from the bombing of government headquarters to attack the United Nations building, and the abduction of school students, which prompted the international community to classify the group as a terrorist organization.

According to statistics monitored by "Alex Thrutman," Professor of African Studies at Georgetown University, Boko Haram has killed at least 15,000 people in Nigeria, Niger and Chad.

On March 8, 2015, Boko Haram announced its pledging alligiance to DAESH leader, Abu Bakr l Baghdadi, who announced his sale and his commitment to hearing and obeying the terrorist organization.

It then changed its name to "West African State" as one of the main branches of the terrorist organization. In 2016, the organization of the state, Abu Musab al-Barnawi, was chosen as the leader of Bukhu Haram.

9- Mali:

Mali is one of the most African countries suffering from the spread of terrorist organizations, where you find in the desert area safe haven to move and spread Among the most prominent organizations deployed there:

- Ansar al-Din Movement

An Islamic militant group with a moral orientation that seeks to apply Islamic law to all the financial territory, but does not demand the independence of the north of the country, in contrast to the secular "liberation movement" which seeks to separate the north from the establishment of the state of Azwad.

The founder of Ansar al-Din is the traditional leader of Ayad Ag Ghali, a member of the tribal leadership of the Ivogas, a former military and a prominent figure in the Tuareg rebellion during the 1990s. "Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb"

The movement fought several armed conflicts with the Malian government in the north, separated some members and joined the Azouad Unity Council, but the group and its leader still retain some power and influence in those areas.

- Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb

This movement is the extension of al-Qaeda in the Maghreb and is rooted in Algeria's civil war. It has a presence in the Sahara and the Sahel, and it seeks to rid North Africa of Western influence and its loyalists and protect the region from foreign ambitions and statehood. A major governing Islamic law.

The movement has supporters from Algeria and other African countries such as Chad, Libya, Mauritania and Tunisia, so its activities extend beyond the borders of Mali. France and Spain are their main enemies, so there are many confrontations with them in their areas of presence.

The movement adopted a number of operations, including the attacks of the Radisson Blu Hotel in Mali in November 2015, in which 100 people were taken as hostages and 19 people were killed, in addition to the attacks of the Burkina Faso Hotel in January 2016.

On March 13, 2016, al-Qaeda in Morocco attacked the town of Grand Bassam in Ivory Coast, killing at least 16 people, including two soldiers and four European tourists.

-   Movement of Tawhid and Jihad in West Africa

One of the most important armed Islamic movements active in the northern regions, a movement affiliated with al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb led by Mohamed Ould Noemer and most of its elements of the Arabs.

The movements Calls for jihad in West Africa, is based in northeastern Mali, and has a strong armament that enables it to take control of entire cities in Mali, as it has threatened more than once its ability to control the financial capital.

The movement emerged in late 2011, and the group announced its first armed operations via video in December 2011, with intention of spreading jihad throughout West Africa, but its operations were limited to southern Algeria and northern Mali. The movement has adopted many incidents, including kidnappings of diplomats and foreigners.

- Al morabitoun in the African Sahel

Is an armed group based in the northern desert of Mali. Its fighters were loyal to the famous Algerian "Mukhtar Belmokhtar", an intellectual belonging to al-Qaeda. In December 2015, it became a branch of the Tawhid wal Jihad group in West Africa.

In May 2015, one of the leaders of the "Mourabitoun", Adnan Aboul Waleed, the Sahrawi, announced his allegiance to DAESH, but Mokhtar Belmokhtar rejected this, reflecting the existence of internal divisions.

The organization claimed responsibility for a restaurant attack in Bamako on March 6, 2015, killing five people, including Europeans, and injuring about eight people, including two Swiss soldiers.

- Ansar al Sharia

The Ansar al Sharia  group was founded by Ammar Ould Hama, after he left directly from the Tawhid wal Jihad group in West Africa. Ammar Ould Hama was known for his ability to draw attention to him, even as a strong charismatic man due to his remarkable presence and strong French language, In northern Mali.

The group was supported by the Arab Front of the Arab tribes in Timbuktu and many of them joined in the conflict in the northern Mali region.

The Islamic Azawad Movement

Armed movement in northern Mali raises the slogan of defending the interests of the people in northern Mali and its issues, where the government accuses of marginalizing the people and not pay attention to their demands.

The movement was formed by the divisions of the Ansar al Din movement following the French military intervention in Mali in 2013.

- Ansar al Islam and Muslims

It Is a modern jihadist organization formed in March 2017 after the merger of four armed movements involved in the conflict in northern Mali because of their intellectual and jihadist convergence with each other.

The group announced itself in a videotape of several jihadist leaders: Ayad Ag Ghali (Amir Ansaruddin),  Jamal Okasha (Prince of the Sahara region within AQIM), Mohamed Koufa (Prince of the Liberation Front of Massena) and Hassan Al Ansari (Assistant Mukhtar Belmokhtar) Al-Murabitun) and Abu Abd al-Rahman Sanhaji (al-Qa'ida  judge in the Islamic Maghreb).

They declared their assembly and integration into a single structure, and announced their allegiance to al-Qaeda. Iyad Ag Ghali was chosen as the movement leader.

- DAESH in the Great Desert

His first presence in that region dates back to May 2015, when the leader of the Murabitun organization, Adnan Abu Al-Waleed Al-Sahrawi, broke away and announced the pledge of allegiance to the Islamic state. He was called the Isis in the Great Sahara.

His group has carried out several operations in Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger, but the organization's presence in the region remains contested with al-Qaeda's jihadi organizations.

10- Chad:

Chad is suffering from the spread of terrorist organizations in accordance with their spread of neighboring countries such as Libya and the Sahara, where Chad intervenes in the conflict between DAESH and al-Qaeda on the areas of presence.

- Bani Ghazi Defense Brigades

It is an armed Libyan organization, and its presence extends to Chad after the Chadian opposition factions have been linked to this organization.

The four Arabic countries fighting against terrorism "Egypt, Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Bahrain" has described this group as a terrorist group and said it is supported by Qatar ..This is confirmed by the position of the Chad government against Qatar, which accused it of supporting terrorism on its territory and even closed the Doha embassy and expelled Qatari diplomats from the country.

- Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb

Members of this organization exist as the most widespread jihadist organization in the West Africa, and its roots extend to Chad within the regions of the organization's spread in northern Mali, eastern Mauritania and western Niger.

the chances for the presence of this organization has increased by the supporting of Chadian opposition armed organization in the war with the government there.

- DAESH

Libya's cells and their affiliates who have infiltrated across the Libyan-Chadian border to escape international efforts to undermine the organization's presence in Libyan territory.

11-  Mauritania

Jihadi ideology has been spreading in Mauritania since the 1990s, and many individuals have joined al-Qaeda, and there are still groups spread across Mauritanian territory.

Al - Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb

Elements of this organization exist as the most widespread jihadist organization in West Africa, and its roots extend to Mauritania within the areas of the organization's spread in the Sahel and Sahara.

Over the past years, QIM has adopted a series of bloody attacks in Mauritania and has targeted many foreign operations.

In 2016, the US government published a number of documents found by the Special Forces that attacked the house of Osama bin Laden in 2011. These documents reveal the confidence of the terrorist organization in itself when discussing the point of negotiation with the Mauritanian authority to release terrorists from prisons and hand over a large sum of money for the terrorist base for a year, as confirmed by those documents that al-Qaeda plans against Algeria and Tunisia have been in place since before 2011.

- Salafi Jihadist

Jihadist and Salafist jihadist organizations have been active since the 1990s, when radical Islam began to spread in Mauritania in the form of multiple cells, but the government there met it with preemptive security strikes.

The first Mauritanian Salafist organization appeared in 2000, in the name of the Morabitun, after which the name was changed to the Mauritanian group for Preaching and Combat and disbanded in 2005 after seven of its members were arrested.

So far, Salafism is still receiving acceptance and interaction from young Mauritanians and spreading in several areas of Mauritania, although many of its adherents tend to be organizationally aligned to al Qaeda.

12- Senegal

The roots of most of the terrorist groups in Senegal extend to the major organizations that exist in the Sahel and West Africa regions.

- the group of supporting Islam and Muslims: 

A jihadist organization that grew up in Mali in alliance of al Qaeda-linked jihadist groups - the Principality of the Sahara, Murabitoun, Ansar al-Din and Masina Liberation Front. The Senegalese authorities foiled in October 2017 an attempt to blow up a hotel frequented by foreigners.

DAESH

They are cells and elements of DAESH in the Sahara region who are in different cities to carry out operations there which are mainly aimed at the interests of foreign countries.

Senegal is seeking to develop its military capabilities to counter the dangers of terrorism on its territory, according to Senegalese President Maki Sal in early December 2016 at the Peace and Security Forum in Africa. "Most of our countries and armies are not at the required level."

 

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<![CDATA[ Saudi Arabia is looking for moderate Islam .. Al-Azhar role ]]> Tue, 14 Nov 2017 11:56:12 EET http://en.theinternational.club/news/20 by: Hamada El-kohly

On October 24, the world was surprised by the statement of Saudi Arabia’s crown prince, Mohammed bin Salman, pledging to  apply "moderate Islam" in the kingdom.  "We won’t waste 30 years of our life combating extremist thoughts, we will destroy them now and immediately," bin Salman said.

His statements are the most emphatic after a long history of the religious system that Saudi Arabia has entered for decades. However, what can be called religious and intellectual reform has begun since the reign of King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz, despite strong community opposition to these reforms.

Saudi women have taken remarkable steps toward successful achievements thanks to King Abdullah’s full support in various areas.

During King Abdullah's reign, women managed, for the first time, to manage leadership positions and were nominated to the Shura Council after the historic decision in the Kingdom on 25 September 2011, and participated in the health, education and media sectors.

The late King opened the door for women's scholarships abroad and allowed the establishment of women's shops and the allocation of housing loans to support their families.

The Saudis, especially women, echoed the famous words stated by the late king, in which he said:" I believe strongly in the rights of women, my mother is a woman, my sister is a woman, my daughter is a woman, and my wife is a woman. I believe the day will come when women drive".

In the era of the current King Salman bin Abdul Aziz, the Kingdom has moved towards more religious and intellectual reform, which what can be called a "revolution on the legacies".

The aspects of this reform are as following:

The kingdom limited the power of Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice. Saudi authorities have worked during the past months on limiting the actions of the committee. Its members became unable to pursue suspects or conduct arrests, and instead must report their observations to security forces.

Moreover, the Saudi Shura Council is also considering a proposal to include the committee to the Ministry of Islamic Affairs, which would limit the committee's power completely.

It is known that the committee conducts patrols in public places to enforce bans on alcohol, music, prayer time, store closures and the mixing of unrelated men and women. It also imposes strict modesty requirements on women’s dress.

One of the Saudi trend towards moderate Islam is the historical royal decision, issued by King Salman bin Abdul Aziz on September 26, allowing women to own licenses to drive in the kingdom, after years of ignoring internal and external demands called on the Saudi authorities to issue such decision.

Meanwhile, the General Sports Authority in Saudi Arabia has announced that women will be allowed to enter the sports stadiums for the first time from next year, and started to create 3 playgrounds in Riyadh, Jeddah and Dammam to be ready for women's entry according to special regulations.

Saudi Arabia has also arrested a number of extremist clerics who oppose moderation, among them the prominent preachers Salman al-ouda and Awad al-Qarni.

Back to pre-1979

 When Prince Mohammed Bin Salman spoke about moderate Islam, he said: "We will return to moderation." Is there a historical era to which Bin Salman can return? Is he intend to take his country back to the origin of religion as came down in Mecca on the Prophet of Islam?

The history of Saudi Arabia did not know moderation, in the last century, in its concept known now despite several attempts. But what was mentioned by Bin Salman about going back again to pre-1979 refers to the Iranian Shiite threat which was exploited in the promotion of radical ideas that sprouted from the Salafist thoughts.

The year of 1979 witnessed many important events, notably the Iranian revolution and the subsequent attempts to export the ideas of this revolution and its sectarian poisons. This led to the increase of religious influence in the Kingdom to counter this wave of extremist ideas, and not all the results of this confrontation were positive at the level of Saudi society.

The same year, and specifically on November 20, witnessed the incident of Al Haram Al Makki, when more than 200 armed men took over the holy mosque, claiming the appearance of Al Mahdi during the reign of King Khalid bin Abdul Aziz. The process shook the whole Islamic world. in terms of timing, the incident took place at the begining of the new hajry year, and violence has caused bloodshed in the courtyard of the Haram al-Makki.

On December 25, from the same year, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan took place, which changed the thoughts of young people and the talk about the concepts of jihad increased.

Does the Kingdom resort to Al-Azhar as a symbol of moderation in the world?

A question we asked for Al-Azhar's deputy, Dr. Abbas Shouman, who said that Al-Azhar has close ties to the Kingdom during the last two years, at the official level and at the level of religious institutions.

However, he said that no one in the kingdom had asked for anything specific in the context of the recent statements of Prince Mohammed bin Salman and the efforts of the brotherly state to achieve moderate Islam, adding that cooperation in this framework between Egypt and Saudi Arabia does not stop.

Shouman remarks are not different from those of the Grand Imam, Dr. Ahmed al-Tayeb, Sheikh of Al-Azhar, who said that Al-Azhar has a desire for greater rapprochement and continuous coordination with the Saudi Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Endowments and Guidance, to double efforts to prepare practical and quick programs to address the challenges facing moderate Islam.

After crown prince's remarks, the statements of the Grand Imam appeared, according to observers' readings for the Egyptian-Saudi scene, like an offer from Al-Azhar to provide KSA with great services.

Over the past few years, increasing contacts between the Al-Azhar and official and religious institutions in KSA have been observed in contrast to what has been during the past decades.

Through monitoring these visits and meetings, the most important of which are as following,

In April 2013, the Grand Imam Al-Tayeb arrived in Saudi Arabia, heading a delegation of Al-Azhar Association of Senior Scholars, in his first visit to the Kingdom after taking office.

In April 2016, King Salman bin Abdulaziz visited Al-Azhar Mosque accompanied by Dr. Ahmed Al-Tayeb, Sheikh of Al-Azhar Al-Sharif and a number of senior officials at Al-Azhar. During the visit, King Salman laid the foundation stone of the Beouth Islamic City, where students of Al-Azhar from around the world are staying.

In May, Grand Imam Dr. Ahmed Al-Tayeb, visited Riyadh, where he delivered an important speech in the exceptional version of " Tweeps" forum, which was launched by Misk Foundation of Prince Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz.

On October 24, Dr. Ahmad Al-Tayeb, received Ambassador Ahmed Kattan, Ambassador of Saudi Arabia to Cairo. The two sides did not announce details of the meeting. While an official routine statement was issued by Al-Azhar and a similar statement from the Saudi Embassy in Cairo. But we can say that the meeting came as part of KSA's efforts to return to moderate Islam.

Finally, there is no doubt that the whole region has suffered extremism, and Saudi Arabia is among the most prominent countries facing many challenges related to extremist ideas for religious or tribal reasons.

Meanwhile, there is no doubt that building of modern state can not be reconciled with extremist ideas, no doubt the seriousness of Prince Mohammed bin Salman in his quest for moderation, and there is no doubt that the shortest way to reach moderation is Al-Azhar Al Sharif, which will not be overlooked by the Kingdom.

 

this article published on City-journal.com

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